Chapter 13, 14, 15

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First Impressions

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153 Terms

1

First Impressions

  • Less Than 30 seconds to form one

  • Can be very accurate but not always

  • Very Persistent

    • Ignore Contradictory Information

    • Take long time to change “wrong impression”

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Halo Effect

Judgement based on one characteristic of a person (negative or positive)

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Attributions

Judgement about cause of a person’s behavior

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Internal Attributions

An inner trait or characteristic that made them act a certain way

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Situational Attributions

The cause of a behavior being the enviroment

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Fundamental Attribution Error

Tendency to give other peoples behavior as internal attribution enven if situtational attribution calls for it

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Actor-Observor Bias

We view our behavior and others very differently, situational attribution for worse behavior and internal attribution for good behavior

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Just-World Beliefs

Good things happen to good people and bad things to bad people

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Prejudice

Negative assessment of another person based on his/her membership to a group

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Stereotypes

Set of traits associated with a group

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Discrimination

Unfair behavior towards a person based on stereotyping and prejudice

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Prejudice is Universal

  • May influence how we feel about others subconciously or consciously

  • May not necessarily influence how we treat them

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Reducing Prejudice

  • Contact between people of equal standing

  • Participation in cooperative activity

    • Robber’s Cave Study

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Reducing Prejudice

  • Education

    • Prejudice education and how it can influence behavior

  • Brown Eyes - Blue Eyes Project

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Attitudes

Positive or negative feeling towards objects, persons, or situation

  • Formation

    • Personal Experience

    • Other’s Experience

      • Operant Conditioning

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Cognitive Dissonance

Uncomfortable state that occurs when behavior and attitude do not match, can be resolved through attitude change

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Social Norms

Unwritten rules for behavior in social setting

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Conformity

Matching your behavior or apperance to the percieved social norms

  • Asch Line Study // Asch Conformity

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Stanford // Zimbardo Prison Study

  • Volunters: White Young Men

  • 2 Gaurds took their role to seriously and chaos ensues

  • Femal partner asks Zimbardo to end it because he was blind to the damage

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Obedience

Do as others command

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Compliance

Do as others want

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Conformity

Do as others do

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Compliance

No authority is used, you do something another person asks of you

  • Want to be agreeable

  • Want to get along

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Obedience

Compliance with the request of an authority figure

  • Milgram Obedience Study

    • Understand actions of normal people in Nazi Germany

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Ethics Issue Milgram // Zimbardo

  • Informed consent not observed

    • Listed out all actions to be committed on subjects

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Power of One

An individual or small group can influence a larger one

  • Must Display

    • Confidence

    • Consistency

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Social Facilitation

Observers of a performance changes the result of performance

  • Well Practiced = Improved with audience

  • Novel / Complex = Worse with audience

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Social Loafing

Reduce motivation and effect shown by individuals working in a group

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Deindividuation

  • Immersion of individual within a group, feels anonymous

  • Leads to contrary behavior for individuals in a group

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Bystander Effect

  • Large group of people = Less likely for individuals to do anything

    • Diffusion of Responsibility

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Kitty Genoverse

  • Her death led to 911 system and study of Bystander Effect

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Proximity

Physical closeness to other person

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Exposure Effect

Consistent exposure leads to familiarity and liking

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Similarities

Shared values

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Physical Apperance

  • Preference for attractive faces

    • Symmetrical Faces

  • Effects initial attraction but is not important for long term

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Matching Hypothesis

Matching levels of attractiveness gravitate towards each other

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Resource Exchange

In heterosexual dating, male trades occupational status for physical attractiveness in females

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Reciprocal Liking

Like people more when other people like us

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Similarity

Drawn to those with similar qualities

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Desirable Personality Traits

  • Warmth

  • Good sense of humor

  • Social Assertiveness

    • Good Communication

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Relationship Maintenance

Actions and activites used to sustain the desired quality of a relationship

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Interdependence or Social Exchange Theory

If cost for being in a relationship is lower than benefit the relationship lasts

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Intimacy (Sternberg)

Warmth, closeness, and sharing

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Passions (Sternberg)

Intense feeling (positive/negative), sexual desire

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Commitment

Intent / decision to stay in relationship

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Ultimate Type of Love

Consummate Love

  • All 3 ingredients

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Sternberg’s Triangular Theory

knowt flashcard image
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Criteria for Abnormal Behavior

  1. Deviance

  2. Maladaptive Behavior

  3. Personal Distress

  4. Dangerousness

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Deviance

The behavior must be significantly differnt from what society deems appopriate

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Maladaptive Behavior

The behavior interferes with the person’s ability to function

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Personal Distress

The behavior is troubling to the individual

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Dangerousness

The behavior could cause harm to oneself or others

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

  • Worried about everything and anything possible

  • No clear trigger for Anxiety

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Panic Attack

Not a disorder but a symptom of a possible disorder

  • 10 minute peak of intense discomfort, with four or more symptoms

    • Chest Pain

    • Sweating

    • Palpitations

    • Fear of Death

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Panic Disorder

  • Recurring and Unexpected Panic Attacks

  • Followed by 1 month or more of

    • Concern about having another

    • Maladaptive change in behavior to aviod Panic Attack

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Phobias

  • Unrealistic/Overexaggerated fears of an object or situation

  • Clear Trigger that causes anxiety or even attack

    • Aviodance behavior towards trigger

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Agoraphobia

  • Fear of the marketplace, populated places

    • Avoidance behavior

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Social Anxiety Behavior

Social or performance situation causes anxiety or even attacks due to potiental embarrasment

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Specific Phobia

Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger

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Animal Type Phobia

Dogs, Cats, Spiders

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Blood-Injection-Injury Type Phobia

Own blood or others, injury, and needle

  • Faint on exposure

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Natural Enviroment Type Phobia

Heights, storms

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Situational Type Phobia

Flying, driving over bridges

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Anxiety Sensitivity Theory

People are more sensitive to internal physiological symptoms of anxiety and overreact with fear when they occur

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Classical Conditioning

Acquisition of phobic fear

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Operant Conditioning

Negative reinforcement through aviodance, person feels less anxious

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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessed with certain though, image, idea, or urges uncontrolled

  • Compulsions: Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels must be performed (about an hour a day)

  • Level of Insight: Does patient understand that their behavior is drastic or do they think it’s normal

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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Must experience Level 1 trauma, actual or threatened death / injury / or sexual assault

  • 14% of Combat Soilders

  • Women have higher rate because of SA

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Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

  • Depressed mood or loss of interest/pleasure

    • Must last 2 weeks or longer

  • 16% of population

    • More common in Women, however may be caused by societal expectations

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MDD Causes

  • Biological Factors

    • Genetic Disposition

    • Biochemical Factors

  • Cognitive Factors

    • Negative Thinking

  • Interpersonal Issues

    • Poor social skills

  • Precipitating Stress

    • Pre-existing stressor in life

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Anxiety Disorder Causes

  • Biological Factors

    • Genetics

    • Anxiety Sensitivity Theory

  • Past Experience/Conditioning & Learning

    • Classical Conditioning

    • Operant Conditioning

  • Cognitive Factors

    • Misinterpret harmless situations as threatening

    • Focus excess attention on perceived threats

    • Selective recall information that seems threatening

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Manic Episode

Lasts atleast 1 week, abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood

  • Symptom of Bipolar disorder

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Bipolar I Disorder

  • Atleast one manic episodes at any point in life

  • Do not need to have depression to be diagnosed

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Bipolar II Disorder

  • Hypomanic episodes, less intense than manic

    • Never had manic episode

  • Needs to have depressive episodes

  • Most destressing flipping back and forth between two

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Bipolar Disorder Causes

  • Genetic Predisposition

    • VERY strongly tied to genetics

  • Biochemical Factors

    • Low serotonin activity

  • Stress

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Suicide

Each Day

  • 126 people commit

  • 2,000 attempt

Women attempt 2x to 3x more often

Men 4x more likely ‘

  • 78.8% of suicides are Male

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Risks of Suicide

  • Previous Attempts

  • Family History of Suicide

  • Depression

  • Substance Use

    • 1/3 Alcohol in System

    • 1/4 Legally Drunk

  • Access to Firearms

    • 5x more likely with gun in home

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Anorexia Nervosa

  • Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight

  • Undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evalution

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Restricting Type

Place severe restrictions on the quantity and type of food they consume

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Binge-Eating/Purging Type

Consume a large amount of calories or food, then self-induce vomitting or laxiative

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Anorexia Side Effects

  • Cold intolerance

  • Cardiovascular Problems

  • Death

    • 18-20% of people with the condition will die of it

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Bulimia Nervosa

  • Recurrent episodes of binge eating

  • Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior

    • Vomiting

    • Misuse of laxatives

    • Fasting

  • Occurs Regularly

    • About once a week for 3 weeks

  • Body image important for self-esteem

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Bulimia Side Effect

  • Significant and permanent loss of dental enamel

  • Increase frequency of dental cavities

  • Gastric Rupture

  • Dependence on laxatives

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Eating Disorder Causes

  • Learning Factors

    • Unhealthy weight management behaviors

  • Cognitive/Social Factors

    • Misperception of body shape/size

    • Too much importance on weight

    • Need for control (Anorexia)

    • Difficulty controlling negative emotions (Bulimia)

  • Role of Media

    • Thin ideal internalization

    • Pressure to be thin in our society

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Schizophrenia

  • Significant impairment in functioning

  • Continuous signs of impairment for atleast 6 months

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Schizophrenia Cause

  • Genetic vulnerability

  • Neurochemical factors

    • Excess activity of Dopamine

  • Structural Abnormalities in Brain

    • Enlarged ventricles

  • Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis

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Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis

Schizophrenia as being the result of a disruption of brain development

  • Prenatal exposure to a flu virus

  • Severe famine

  • Birth trauma

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Personality Disorders

  • Enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from expectations

  • Pattern leads to clinically significant distress

  • Pattern is stable and of long duration, onset in adolescence

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Cluster A

  • Schizoid

  • Schizotypal

  • Paranoid

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Cluster B

  • Antisocial

  • Borderline

  • Histrionic

  • Narcissistic

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Cluster C

  • Avoidant

  • Dependent

  • Obsessive-Compulsive

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Cluster B

  • Trouble with emotional control and trouble getting along with others

  • Dramatic

  • Unpredictable

  • Impulsive

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Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others

  • Failure to conform to social norms

  • Reckless disregard for saftey

  • Lack of remorse

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Borderline Personality Disorder

  • Pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects

  • Frantic efforts to aviod real or imagined abandonment

  • Chronic feelings of emptiness

  • Identity disturbance

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Nature of impairment changes with age

  • Higher in Males

Causes of Autism

  • 5% of siblings of children with autism are also autistic

  • Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis

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ADHD

  • Most common psychological disorder of childhood

    • 3 to 10 percent of school age children

  • Can persist from adolescence to adulthood

  • Current causes unknown

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Inattention Type

  • Often fails to give close attention to details or make careless mistakes

  • Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play

  • Is often easily distarcted by extraneous stimuli

  • Is often forgetful in daily activities

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Hyperactivity-Impulsive Type

  • Often fidgets or taps hands or feet or squirms in seat

  • Often leaves seat in situations where remaining seated is expected

  • Often has difficulty waiting his or her turn

  • Often interrupts or intrudes on other

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Combined Type

Combination of Inattentive Type and Hyperactivity-Impulsive Type

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Pyschotherapy

Improve symptoms of disorder through conversation between patient and therapist

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