MUSIC 1A03 FINAL

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The Baroque Era

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Music

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270 Terms

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The Baroque Era

1600 -1750. Period between Renaissance and Classical Era. The term was used to describe the extravagent and bizarre qualities of the music

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Affect

single emotional expression

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Doctrine of affections

1 feeling per movement

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represented passions through music

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Homophony

one voice clearly more important than others. Allowed possibility of

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  • soloist portraying single dramatic character

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  • opera

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  • the concerto

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  • elaborate embellishments

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***makes it easier to understand the text and restores balance between text and music

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Operas

first performed in private theatres in the courts of the nobility and royalty.

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  • A drama sung from beginning to end

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  • Thoughts and emotions by singing

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Oratorios

operas without costumes and staging, usually on a sacred topic; created for performance in church or in an opera house during Lent

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Castrati

Beginning of importance of virtuoso performers. They were singers/instrumentalists of high technical and musical skill. Men who were castrated as boys so their voices would not change

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Claudio Monteverdi

Wrote "Orpheus" (Act II)

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1567 - 1643

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Career straddled Renaissance and Baroque Eras - mastered both old and new textures

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Two distinct phases in his career: Mantua and Venice

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Mantua

Phase of Monteverdi's career

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Serving the Gonzagas and writing music to order

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Venice

Phase of Monteverdi's career

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The Maestro di Cappella at St. Mark's - very prestigious position

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Basso Continuo

Chords played by lute, harpsichord, etc.

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Base line played by cello, bassoon, etc. (instruments that can sustain a sound

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Baroque compositions/movements

Recitatives, arias, choruses, duets, trios, sextets, etc

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Recitative

a style of singing that lies somewhere between lyrical song and speech. Also the operatic number that is sung in this style

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  • moves the action along

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  • speaking style of singing

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  • not very elaborate musically

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  • simple accompaniment

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Aria

Italian for air or melody: any lyrical movement

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  • character(s) pause(s) to reflect

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  • musically elaborate, often virtuoisc

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  • accompaniment does not overshadow the singer

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Chorus

polyphonic texture; comment on the action, reflect emotions, etc

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Orpheus (story)

His beloved, Euridice, gets bitten by snake and dies, goes to the underworld. He sings to persuade the gaurdians of the underworld let Euridice live again. they agree as long as he doesn't look back while leaving the underworld, he does and loses her forever. Euridice becomes a constellation

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"Orpheus" (Act II)

Written by Claudio Monteverdi

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  • Most frequently performed early opera, lively music for dancers

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Henry Purcell

Wrote "Dido and Aeneas" Act I

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1659 - 1695

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  • Born into musical family

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  • wrote many semi operas

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  • Despite success little is known about his life

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Dido and Aeneas

One of the first known operas written in English.

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  • First performed at girls school in Chelsea in 1685

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  • Not performed again until after composer's death

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semi operas

plays interpolated with songs and music

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overture (Dido and Aeneas)

gets the audience ready

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  • purely instrumental

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  • uses common musical themes from the opera

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  • A French _________

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French Overture

slow intro in dotted rhythms (long-short)

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  • Followed by imitative fast section

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Mbuti Pygmies

Perform Marriage Celebration Song

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  • From northeastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) formerly known as Zaire

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  • Nomads

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  • Life is a communal affair

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Marriage Celebration Song

Performed by Mbuti Pygmies

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  • an ostinato

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  • call and response

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  • heterophony

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  • hocket

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Melody: rhythmic fragments overlap

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Form: ABBB - melodic unit, repeats over and over to create ostinato

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Ostinato

short pattern of notes repeated over and over

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  • Common in Baroque music

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  • Also occurs in music passed down orally

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Hocket

rhythmically interlocking voices; one fills space left by another's rests to make complete melody

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  • a form of polyphony where two or more voices rhymically interlock

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Barbara Strozzi

Wrote "Revenge"

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1619-1677

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  • Overcame many obstacles

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  • Unmarried, had 4 children

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  • Came from musical and cultured family

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  • Adopted by Guilio Strozzi, but may have been biological daughter

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  • Published 8 volumes of music (~ 125 works)

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female musicians

Very few professional opportunities

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Some were Barbara Strozzi, Francesca Caccini and Elizabeth Jacquet de la Guerre

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Revenge

written by Barbara Strozzi

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"la vendetta" in Italian

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  • Poetic text expressesa jilted lover's thirst for revenge: energetic and extroverted music

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Timbre: singer, 2 violins, basso continuo (cello and lute)

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Chamber Music

Meant to be performed in a small room at a private gathering of friends

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J.S. Bach

Wrote "Fugue in G Minor", "Brandenberg Concerto no. 2 in F Major", "Cantata 140"

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  • 1685 - 1750

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  • Born into a family of many musicians

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  • Changed jobs frequently

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  • 2 marriages and 20 children, 10 survived to adulthood

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Fugue

common in Baroque era

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A polyphonic work based on a theme (known as a subject)

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A contrapuntal work that begins with an unaccompanied subject that is subsequently presented in various keys and textures

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Exposition

based on a conventional pattern

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Fugal exposition

the opening section of a fugue in which each voice states the same subject. It is (usually) comprised of alternating subjects and answers in all the fugue's voices. It usually ends with a (contrapunctal) cadence.

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Subject

the unaccompanied melody that begins a fugue

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Fugue in G Minor

Written by JS Bach

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  • Fugue is composed for organ

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Antonio Vivaldi

Wrote "the Four Seasons; Winter"

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1678-1741

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  • Called the Red Priest

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