BIO315

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organ systems

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Exam 1 : tissues, skeletal system

125 Terms

1

organ systems

The organism is composed of ____.

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2

organs

Organ systems are composed of ____.

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3

tissues

Organs are composed of ____.

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4

cells

Tissues are composed of ____.

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5

organelles

Cells are composed of ____.

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6

molecules

Organelles are composed partly of ____.

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7

atoms

Molecules are composed of ____.

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8

single, complete individual

An organism is a...

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9

group of organs that work together to perform a specific function

An organ system is a...

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10

structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function

An organ is a...

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11

anatomical boundaries and are visibly distinguishable from adjacent structures

Organs have definite...

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12

similar cells and cell products that form a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function

A tissue is a mass of...

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13

smallest unit of an organism that can carry on life functions

Cells are...

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14

microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions

Organelles are...

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15

two

A molecule is composed of at least ____ atoms

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16

the ability of an epithelium to change from one type of tissue to another

Metaplasia

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17

epithelial

The tissue found covering body surfaces, lining body cavities, forming the internal and external linings of many organs, and constituting most gland tissue is _____ tissue.

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18

protection, absorption, excretion, secretion, sensation, and filtration

What are the functions of epithelial tissue?

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19

basement

A specialized layer that serves to anchor an epithelium to the connective tissue below is a(n) ____ membrane.

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20

basal

Which surface of an epithelial cell faces the basement membrane?

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21

stratified squamous, stratified columnar, stratified cuboidal, and urothelium

What are the four types of stratified epithelia?

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22

metaplasia

Children have red bone marrow in their long bones which changes to yellow bone marrow (fat) by adulthood. This is an example of ____.

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23

fibroblast

A connective tissue cell that produces collagen fibers and ground substance is a(n) ____.

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24

macrophages

Large phagocytic cells that wander through the connective tissues are called ____.

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25

adhere epithelial tissue to underlying connective tissue

What is the function of the basement membrane?

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26

reticular, elastic, and collagenous

What are the three fiber types found in fibrous connective tissue?

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27

lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow

Where is reticular connective tissue found?

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28

chondrocyte

What is a cartilage cell that has become enclosed in a lacuna called?

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29

formed

A cellular component of blood or lymph is a ____ element.

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30

plasma

The ground substance of blood is ____.

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31

To transport cells, nutrients, gases and dissolved matter through the body

What is the primary function of blood?

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32

nervous and muscular

Which tissue types are described as excitable?

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33

nervous

The tissue that is specialized for communication by means of electrical and chemical signals is ____ tissue.

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34

Elongated fibers (cells) that are specialized to contract

Muscular tissue consists of what type of cells or fibers?

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35

endocrine and exocrine

What are the two broad types of glands?

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36

Exocrine glands secrete onto a surface. Endocrine glands secrete into the blood

What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands?

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37

cell lysis

How do holocrine glands release their secretions?

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38

support, protection, movement, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, and blood formation

What are the functions of the skeletal system?

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39

A connective tissue with a hardened matrix that makes up bone

What best described osseous tissue?

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40

flat

Thin, often curved, bones are classified as what shape?

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41

in the limbs

Most long bones are found _____.

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42

irregular

Bones such as the vertebrae are classified as ____ bones.

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43

red bone marrow

What is the major producer of blood cells?

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44

short

What bone shape are the carpal bones of the wrist?

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45

bone

Osseous tissue is a connective tissue with a hardened matrix that makes up organs called

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46

flat

Bones are classified as one of four types based on their shape. The bones of the cranium are examples of ____ bones.

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47

A hollow cavity within the diaphysis of a long bone

Which of the following best describes a medullary cavity?

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48

compact

Which osseous tissue is found on the surface of bones and composed of tightly arranged parallel osteons?

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49

True

True or false: Compact bone comprises most of the diaphysis of a long bone.

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50

spongy

The interior of flat bones is composed of ____ bone.

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51

epiphysis

What is the expanded end of a long bone to which tendons and ligaments attach called?

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52

marrow cavity

The medullary cavity is also called the ____.

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53

compact

By weight, the skeleton is mostly ____ bone.

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54

spongy bone

An epiphysial line is slightly denser ____.

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55

spongy bone

The central space at the ends of long bones is occupied by ____.

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56

epiphyseal plate

Where does a long bone grow in length?

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57

periosteum

What is the term for the connective tissue sheath around the external surface of a bone?

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58

medullary cavity

What is the hollow space within the diaphysis of a long bone called?

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59

endosteum

Which layer of tissue lines the internal surfaces of bone?

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60

osteogenic

Stem cells in developing bone that give rise to osteoblasts are called ____ cells.

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61

True

True or false: Once "closes" or ossified, growth in length no longer occurs at an epiphysial plate.

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62

osteocalcin

Osteoblasts secrete the hormone ____.

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63

epiphyseal/growth

The structure found between the epiphysis and diaphysis in a child and is a site of bone growth is the ____ plate.

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64

fibrous layer

The outer layer of periosteum is a(n) ____.

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65

spaces between lamellae that contain osteocytes

Which of the following describes the lacunae of osseous tissue?

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66

calcium phosphate salt

Which is part of the inorganic matter that makes up the matrix of bone?

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67

osteoblasts

Osteogenic cells are stem cells in the endosteum, periosteum, and central canals that can become ____.

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68

lamellae

What are the layers of bony matrix in compact bone tissue called?

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69

osteoblasts

Which bone cells produce the organic bone matrix?

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70

spongy

Trabeculae and spicules are found in ____ bone.

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71

blood cell production

What is the function of red bone marrow?

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72

lacunae

What is the hollow space in which an osteocyte resides called?

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73

Endochondral and intramembranous

What are the methods of ossification that occur in the development of the skeletal system?

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74

hydroxyapatite

The calcium-phosphate salt that mineralizes bone tissue is called ____.

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75

intramembranous

The bones of the skull form by which type of ossification?

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76

concentric

The layers of bony matrix arranged around the central canal of an osteon are called ____ lamellae.

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77

trabeculae

What are the thin plates forming spongy bone called?

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78

hyaline cartilage model

Where does bone formation occur during endochondral ossification?

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79

zone of reserve cartilage

Which zone of the epiphyseal plate is located the farthest from the marrow space?

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80

ossification

The process of bone formation is called ____.

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81

osteoclasts

As a flat bone is produced by intramembranous ossification, which cells are responsible for the resorption of bone tissue that carves out the spongy bone's trabeculae?

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82

interstitial growth

Which type of bone growth occurs within cartilage and results in bone elongation?

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83

hyaline

The cartilage that is the tissue which is replaces with bone during endochondral ossification is ____ cartilage.

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84

appositional growth

Which type of bone growth involves the deposition of new tissue at the surface?

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85

Zone of bone deposition

Which zone of the epiphyseal plate is located the closest to the marrow cavity?

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86

calcium and phosphate

What two ions are deposited by osteoblasts into the bone matrix?

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87

hypercalcemia

If a patient has abnormally high blood calcium levels, they are said to have a condition called ____.

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88

osteoblasts

During intramembranous ossification, bone matrix is deposited by which type of cells?

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89

bones, small intestine, skin, liver and kidneys

Calcitriol (vitamin D) acts on which organs to raise blood calcium levels?

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90

appositional growth

Which type of bone growth occurs within mature bone and results in the bone becoming thicker?

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91

inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts

What does the hormone calcitonin do?

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92

the blood

Where does the calcium and phosphate used to mineralize bone come from?

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93

hypocalcemia

What is low blood calcium called?

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94

calcium

Which mineral is more closely regulated by the body?

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95

calcitriol

Vitamin D, also known as ____, raises the blood calcium level.

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96

estrogen

Which hormone has a greater effect on bone growth?

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97

calcitonin

Which hormone inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts to lower blood calcium levels?

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98

In fetal ossification

Mineral deposition into bones begin when?

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99

it raises them

How does calcitriol affect blood phosphate levels?

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100

Testosterone, Parathyroid hormone, estrogen, calcitonin

Which hormones affect bone growth and development?

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