AP Psychology - Unit 7

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Motivation

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Psychology

160 Terms

1

Motivation

The drive or force that gives purpose or direction to behavior; the desire and action towards goal-directed behavior.

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intrinsic motivation

A desire to perform a behavior comimh from within

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extrinsic motivation

a motivation to take actions that lead to reward (external)

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Instinct

A gut feeling, an unlearned behavior, an intuition, an automatic response, a natural or inherited tendency to behave in a certain way; an innate and consistent pattern of complex behavior that is performed the same way by every member of the species

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Instinct theory

Instincts are the source of our motivation. people are motivated to behave in certain ways because they are evolutionarily programmed to do so.

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Drive reduction theory

Expletive are motivated by a combination of needs and drives

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Need

When a person has a deficiency of some sort; usually physiological,

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Drive

An energized emotional state (an internal stimulus) that pushes a person to do something. Needs drive (or push) a person to set a goal.

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Incentive theory

Incentives are external stimuli that motivate (or pull ) you toward a behavior. People are motivated to do things because of external rewards

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10

Arousal theory

People (and animals) are are motivated to perform because they are trying to maintain optimal levels of physiological arousal

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Arousal

the state of being awake and alert. Each person's "perfect" arousal level is unique.

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Yerkes-Dodson Law

Idea that people need moderate levels of arousal to complete tasks successfully

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13

self-actualization theory

Maslow believed growth and potential were profoundly important in a person's life. He believed all people are potentially capable of becoming self-actualized and that most people are willing and motivated to try. To work on it, people should be less self-centered, accepting of others, appreciative of experiences, and creative.

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Motivated behaviors

Eating and sexual behavior

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15

Ghrelin

Appetite stimulant; hormone released by the stomach when the body needs food; carries the "hungry" signal to the lateral hypothalamus (LH)

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Orexin

Appetite stimulant; produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamus;. Tells the body to do more - eat more etc... Also plays a role in sexual behavior

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ventromdial hypothalamus

Regulates the satiety system - when the body is satisfied; responds to satiety hormones.

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Leptin

Satiety hormone; secreted by fat cells in the body. Travels to VMH to signal body has had enough (is "full"). People with low levels may overeat to obesity. Don't get the "full - no longer hungry" message.

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Insulin

hormone released by the pancreas; regulates level of glucose (sugar) in the body.

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Hypothalamus

"Maintenance" functions in the body, including regulation of eating and drinking; helps maintain homeostasis.

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Set point

The weight range in which the body performs optimally and in which a person stays without any effort to gain or lose weight.

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Basal metabolic rate

The rate of energy expenditure (number of calories needed for body to function properly) when the body is at rest.

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body mass index (BMI)

Ratio of weight to body size and assumed body fat. Our current definition of obesity is based on this measurement.

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Sexual motivation

The desire to have intimate experiences that are pleasurable.

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Sexual desire

mating & passing on genes; more primitive; more physical; has evolutionary roots; important for our ancestors to reproduce successfully.

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Romantic love

emotions, connection, attachment & sexual desire; more of the heart.

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27

Sexuality

Involves a complex web of factors including self-image, identity, values and social norms.

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Excitement stage

Sexual tension, Arousal, genitals become engorged with blood, vagina expands, nipples may enlarge

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Plateau stage

More rapid breathing and heart rate, erection of penis, fluid may appear at tip of penis (enough to create conception)

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Orgasm stage

Increased breathing, heart rate and blood pressure, brain activity similar for both men and women

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Resolution/Refractory stage

Body returns to its normal resting state. Refractory period longer for males than females.

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32

Kinsey scale

0 to 6 scale of sexuality; Proposed the possibility that "heterosexuality" & "nonheterosexuality" exist on a continuum - not as simple as straight/gay or feminine/masculine.

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sexual dysfunctions

Problems that consistently interfere with a person's ability to function properly or be aroused for sexual contact. Examples: Premature ejaculation, Erectile Dysfunction

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Paraphilia

Sexual interest that falls outside of societal norms; abnormal sexual desires.

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Exhibitionist

desire to perform sexually in front of others

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Fetishistic

sexual arousal with/by objects not considered to be normally erotic

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Frotteuristic

inappropriate touching or rubbing against strangers in public

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Pedophilic

sexual desire for children

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39

Masochism

unhealthy desire to receive pain in connection to sex

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Sexual sadism

unhealthy desire to give pain to others in connection to sex.

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Voyeuristic

sexual arousal from watching others undress, bathe, or engage in sex

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42

Sex

biologically determined, based on genitalia.

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Gender

deals with personal, societal and cultural perceptions of sexuality; how you see yourself

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Sexual orientation

a sexual identity based on the gender to which one feels enduring sexual attraction.

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45

approach-approach conflict

Not all bad: you have to decide between two attractive choices

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approach-avoidance conflict

Can be distressing; the person is attracted to one goal but it comes with a negative aspect

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avoidance-avoidance conflict

Presents two undesirable goals; the person has to choose between them

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48

Emotion

A complex experience that begins with a stimulus and includes physiological (body) responses, subjective emotional feelings, and emotional expressions - the outward signs of what a person is feeling.

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49

Common sense theory

a stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to bodily arousal

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50

James-Lange Theory

physiological activity precedes the emotional experience

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51

Cannon-Bard Theory

The proposition that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously

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Schachter Two Factor theory

theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal

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Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions

Plutchik came up with 8 primary emotions, and 8 secondary/mixed emotions; most intense emotions are in the middle, less intense on the outside

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facial feedback hypothesis

Focuses on the relationship between the physiological response and subjective feelings; Assumes facial expressions provide feedback to the brain, which intensifies that emotion.

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Constructionist view of emotions

Views emotions, not as discrete elements in a particular part or region of the brain, but as complex perceptions constructed in the mind from the interaction of sensory input and learned prior associations.

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Emotional intelligence

The ability to recognize and label one's own and others' emotions accurately (emotional appraisal), to use emotions appropriately to problem solve, and to manage and control emotions.

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Reticular formation

General processing

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58

Nucleus accumbens (frontal lobe)

Pleasurable situations

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59

Limbic system

Processes emotional contents

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60

Amygdala

Arousal, fight or flight, anger, fear, aggression, sexual behaviors

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Hippocampus

Processes memory, including emotions attached to memory

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Hypothalamus

Regulatory functions, hunger, thirst, body temp, but also pleasure

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sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

Arousal and calming of the bodies (includes emotions)

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64

nonverbal communication

an important part of emotional expression: facial expressions, gestures, posture.

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Paul Ekman

theory that facial expressions are universal: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise (6)

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Display rules

"Appropriate" ways of expressing emotions. (Japanese are less likely to show anger and fear in facial expressions; they mask them with a smile.)

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Microexpressions

Momentary and involuntary expressions that reveal true emotions, even when facial expressions convey a different emotion. (FBI profilers are specially trained to pick these up)

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68

Polygraphs

Lie detector tests; measures changes in heart rate, blood pressure and respiration

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69

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)

Stress test; measures stress-induced changes in the skin that affect electrical conduction.

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70

Posture and stance

Changing body positions

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71

Kinesics

study of gestures and movements during communication.

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Proxemics

Study of space that people place between themselves and others (intimacy is related to personal space). Personal space, public space,social space

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Paralanguage speech

refers to the nonlinguistic properties of speech. How high or deep is our voice? And what message does that send?

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74

Pitch

based on frequency of sound wave vibrations

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75

Speech rate

can convey excitement, frustration, anger, stress, boredom

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76

Text/pictorial expressions

Pictures, artwork, photographs, drawings, can express the emotions of their creator

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77

Stress

a mental and physical condition that occurs when a person encounters some demand or expectation and must adapt or adjust to the environment.

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78

Distress

negative stress

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79

Eustress

positive stress (pushes us to achieve and accomplish our life goals)

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80

stressors

Conditions or events in the environment that challenge or threaten a person.

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81

Frustrations

can vary; can have different intensities

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External frustrations

a negative emotional state or environmental factor that creates stress - lack of money, inability to find a job

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Personal frustration

Internal characteristics that impede our progress toward a goal (lack of motivation)

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84

Traumatic stressors

more intense emotional pain (long-term illness, natural disaster

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85

primary appraisal

Is the stressor relevant? Is it threatening? On a scale of 1-10, how bad is it? Do I have to handle this now?

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secondary appraisal

Do I have the resources available to handle this? What steps do I take?

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Displaced aggression

Directing the stress toward something or someone else (punching a wall, yelling at spouse or kids, instead of boss)

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Escape

Physically removing oneself from the source of stress or frustration. (dropping out if school; withdrawing from relationship)

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Mood-altering behaviors

Using drugs or alcohol to numb feelings

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Learned helplessness

When people come to believe that they cannot overcome their obstacles no matter how hard they try, so they choose to do nothing. They become passive, withdrawn and generally helpless.

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General Adaptation Syndrome

A 3 stage process that people through in response to stress

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Alarm

Person appraises the stress, makes a plan and mobilizes resources.

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Resistance

Person tries to cope with the stress.

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Exhaustion

Person's energy is depleted. Body can shut down from lack of energy.

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hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

Central stress response system (hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands)

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adrenaline and norepinephrine

Prepare body for fight or flight; pupils enlarge, heart rate increases, blood pressure changes, air passages to the lungs increase.

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Cortisol

"stress hormone" - Alters metabolism during chronic stress, which ultimately takes a toll on the body.

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98

Self defeating fears

Negative self talk

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Emotion-focused coping

Controlling the negative emotional response cause by the stressor (This is upsetting me, but I'm going to remain calm.)

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Problem-focused coping

Creating a strategy to address the stressor (I'm going to exit this traffic jam and find a new route home.)

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