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Q: What is the definition of a disease according to the World Health Organisation?

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Q: What is the definition of a disease according to the World Health Organisation?

an illness that affects the body and/or mind within a single organism.

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Q: What are some common examples of diseases?

Influenza A virus, Asthma, HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Diabetes, CoVID-19.

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8 major causes of diseases

physical agents, genetic factors, chemical agents/drugs, immunologic factors, biologic agents, nutritional factors, lack of oxygen, and endocrine factors.

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4

Q: What elements are we made up of?

hydrogen, helium, and lithium

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Q: What are the major components found in the human body?

water, proteins, inorganic salts, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

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6

Q: What is the fundamental unit of life?

cell.

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Q: How many cells are there in the human body?

10,000,000,000,000,000 (10^15)

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Q: What are some important structures and organelles within cells?

cytoskeleton, lysosomes, plasma membrane

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9

Q: What are the four classes of large biological molecules found in living things?

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

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10

Q: What are macromolecules

large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms.

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Q: Why are proteins important?

define its characteristics and functions.

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Q: What is the central dogma in biology?

the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA (transcription) and from RNA to protein (translation) in all living cells.

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Q: What is the role of proteins in cells?

structural support, storage, transport, cellular communications, movement, defense against foreign substances.

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Q: What are the four levels of protein structure?

primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.

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15

Q: Which diseases are associated with misfolded proteins?

Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and CJD (mad cow disease)

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16

Q1: What are the monomers (building blocks) of carbohydrates?

Monosaccharides.

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Q2: What are the monomers of proteins?

Amino acids.

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Q3: What are the monomers of nucleic acids?

Nucleotides.

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19

Q4: What is the function of proteins?

structural support, storage, transport, cellular communications, movement, and defense against foreign substances.

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Q5: What determines the three-dimensional structure of a protein?

The sequence of amino acids.

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21

Q7: What is lactose intolerance?

a condition where a person lacks the enzyme lactase needed to digest lactose

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lactose intolerance symptoms

gas, cramping, and diarrhea.

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Q8: What is galactosemia?

the inability to metabolize galactose

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Galactosemia symptoms

liver damage, cognitive developmental delay, cataract formation, and kidney failure.

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is galactosemia inherited

yes

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Q9: What are some examples of pandemics throughout history?

cholera, influenza, typhus, smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria, and yellow fever.

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Q10: What is antigenic variation?

the ability of some pathogens to change the expression of epitopes, making them unrecognizable to the immune system.

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Q11: What causes influenza?

RNA viruses,

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what do RNA viruses do to make us need new vaccines all the time

evolve rapidly, leading to the emergence of new strains

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Q12: What is SARS-CoV-2?

the virus responsible for Coronavirus

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Q13: how do autoimmune diseases occur ?

the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages the body's own molecules

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autoimmune disease examples

systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and multiple sclerosis.

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Q14: How does exercise affect the immune system?

can improve immune system function.

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Q15: How does psychological stress affect the immune system?

can disrupt immune system regulation by altering the interactions of the hormonal, nervous, and immune systems.

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35

Q: What is DNA and what is its role?

DNA is a code found in the nucleus of our cells that contains instructions to make us.

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Role of DNA

It determines our genetic makeup and plays a crucial role in our physical traits and susceptibility to diseases.

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Q: What is a genome?

complete set of genetic information specific to a particular organism. It is the same in every cell of an individual.

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Q: What is the structure and function of DNA?

genes code for proteins, double-helix structure carries instructions for various biological processes.

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39

Q: How many chromosomes do somatic cells have?

23 pairs

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How many autosomes do humans have?

22 pairs

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How many sex chromosomes do humans have?

1 pair (XX, XY)

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42

Q: What are the major classes of genetic diseases?

chromosomal disorders, monogenic disorders (caused by single gene defects), and polygenic disorders (caused by defects in multiple genes).

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Q: What are chromosomal disorders?

large-scale alterations in chromosomes that can lead to developmental disorders or spontaneous abortions.

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chromosomal disorder what happens

gain or loss of a complete chromosome and deletion or insertion of part of a chromosome.

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45

Q: how does aneuploidy happen ?

fertilization of gametes with an abnormal number of chromosomes due to nondisjunction.

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what does aneuploidy lead to

abnormal number of a particular chromosome in offspring.

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47

Q: What is Down syndrome?

aneuploid condition

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what is down syndrome caused by

the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21.

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how many people does down syndrome effect

1 in 800-1000 children born each year

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down syndrome is characterised by

various physical and intellectual disabilities.

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51

Q: What are monogenic disorders caused by ?

mutations in a single gene.

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monogenic disorders classified as

autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive based on the inheritance pattern.

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In autosomal recessive disorders, both parents are usually

carriers of one mutated allele.

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autosomal recessive disorders require ? to be affected

two copies of the mutated gene

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autosomal dominant disorders occur when

one copy of a disease-causing gene is sufficient for a person to be affected.

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Q: Can you provide examples of monogenic disorders?

cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease, achondroplasia (a rare form of dwarfism), and albinism.

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Q: What kind of disorder is cystic fibrosis?

genetic disorder primarily

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what does cystic fibrosis effect

the lungs and digestive system.

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cystic fibrosis caused by?

a defective or absent chloride channel in plasma membranes, leading to the buildup of chloride ions outside the cell.

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cystic fibrosis symptoms

thick mucus, frequent chest infections, and malnutrition.

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sickle-cell disease affects ?

red blood cells.

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sickle-cell disease is characterized by

abnormal hemoglobin,

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sickle-cell disease leads to

physical weakness, pain, organ damage, and increased susceptibility to infections.

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sickle-cell disease: Heterozygotes (carriers) have a lower susceptibility to

malaria,

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sickle-cell disease: Heterozygotes (carriers) have a lower susceptibility to malaria, providing a ? in regions where malaria is prevalent.

heterozygotic advantage

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66

Q: What are X-linked disorders?

genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes located on the X chromosome.

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who is more likely to be affected by X-linked disorders,

Males

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how much of a chance do female carriers of X-linked disorders have of passing the mutated gene to their offspring

50%

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Q: Can you provide an example of an X-linked disorder?

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)

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what is DMD characterised by

rapidly worsening muscle weakness.

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who does DMD primarily affect

males

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DMD typically appears in

early childhood.

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73

what determines if someone will develop a disease In single gene disorders

the presence or absence of genetic mutations

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what do mutations disrupt

the normal functioning of genes,

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what do mutations lead to

abnormal protein production or other biological consequences.

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76

Q: What are polygenic disorders caused by ?

a combination of genetic factors (involving multiple genes) and environmental factors.

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polygenic disorders Examples include

heart disease, diabetes, cancer, epilepsy, hypertension, and mental health disorders.

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Q: How do polygenic disorders differ from single gene disorders?

complex inheritance pattern, involve the interaction of multiple genes and environmental factors. lower heritability compared to single gene disorders, the genetic contribution to these disorders is not yet fully understood.

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79

Q1: What is a drug

A drug is any substance that causes an effect in the body,

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80

toxin

any substance that causes an unwanted effect in the body.

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81

Pharmacokinetics

the study of the movement of drugs within the body, including absorption, distribution, and elimination.

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pharmacokinetics helps understand

how the body handles medications

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pharmacokinetics relevant to clinical practice for

determining drug dosing and optimizing treatment outcomes.

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Q3: What are the four components of pharmacokinetics?

absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion.

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Q4: How do substances travel across plasma membranes?

diffusion or passive transport (from higher to lower concentration) and active transport (against concentration or electrochemical gradient).

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active transport

against concentration or electrochemical gradient

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Diffusion or passive transport

from higher to lower concentration

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Co-transport involves the movement of

multiple chemicals across the membrane.

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Q5: What factors affect drug absorption?

the size of the drug molecule, its lipid solubility, its degree of ionisation (pH of surrounding environment), and interactions with food or other medications.

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90

drug metabolism can significantly impact

drug action,

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drug metabolism factors

age, lifestyle, and diseases.

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Drug metabolism, also known as biotransformation, involves

biochemical reactions that change drugs to facilitate their excretion from the body.

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drug Metabolism primarily occurs in

the liver

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Q7: How are drugs distributed throughout the body? factors in determining distribution.

The amount of blood flow to body tissues, Drug-protein complexes, barriers like the placenta or brain barriers

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Many drug molecules form reversible complexes with

plasma proteins, preventing them from reaching target cells and body tissues. Only the free, unbound drug can exert an effect.

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96

Many drug molecules form reversible complexes with plasma proteins, preventing them from

reaching target cells and body tissues.

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97

Only the ? drug can exert an effect.

free, unbound

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drugs can also be excreted

into bile (biliary excretion), through the lungs (respiratory excretion), or by glandular secretions (e.g., sweat, milk).

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99

Drugs are primarily excreted by the

kidneys (renal excretion),

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Enterohepatic recirculation occurs when

drugs excreted in bile are reabsorbed and recirculated back to the liver.

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