Anatomy Lab practical 1

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Human Anatomy

the understanding of the structure of the human body

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Human Physiology

study of the function of the human body

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Scientific Method steps

Question

Research

Hypothesis

Experiment

Data Analysis

Conclusion

Communication

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Hypothesis

a testable proposal that seeks to explain a scientific question

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Experiment

Testing done to prove or disprove the hypothesis

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Data

pieces of information or facts obtained and later examined to support or reject the proposed hypothesis

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What is the ratio between a millimeter (mm) and a cubic centimeter

1 to 1

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What is the metric unit for length

meter

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What is the metric unit for volume

liters

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What is the metric unit for mass

grams

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What is the metric unit for time

seconds

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Kilo

1,000 times greater

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Deca

10 times greater

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Deci

1/10 as much

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Centi

1/100 as much

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Milli

1/1000 as much

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Micro

1/1000000 (one millionth as much)

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Nano

1/1000000000 (one billionth as much)

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Independent variable

the single variable that is changed to see how it effects the subject

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Dependent variable

the results caused by the change in the independent variable

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What is the scale for pH

Acidic (0-7)

Neutral (7)

Basic or Alkaline (7-14)

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What makes something acidic or basic.

When the substance is placed into a liquid and the substance dissociates or breaks apart, an Acidic solution means more H+ broke over from the overall substance then OH-, this is then opposite for a basic solution. If the solution is neutral, that means the substance dissoicated evernly into H+ and OH- ions.

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Hydroxide ion

OH-

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What does pH refer to

the concentration of H+ ions

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What is the difference between the pH of 5 and the pH of 6 on the scale.

the concentration of the H+ ion would be in difference of 10. There are 10 times more H+ ion in a solution with the pH of 5 then there are in the pH of 6

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Buffers

materials that resist change in pH

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Covalent bonds

molecules where bonded atoms share electrons

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Ionic bonds

electrons from one atom are transferred to another atom and the result is an atom with a positive change and an atom with a negative charge (this is done because atom what to have a full electron shell of 8 electrons)

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Which type of bonds are dissociated in water

Ionic bonds

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Hydrogen bonds

when the electrons of the hydrogen atom are attracted to another atom

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Regional anatomy

the study of particulate areas of the body

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Systemic anatomy

the study of organ systems

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What are the 11 organ systems

Reproductive

Urinary

Nervous

Muscular

Respiratory

Skeletal

Lympathic

Integumentary

Digestive

Endocrine

Circulatory

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Reproductive organ system

the gonads (testes and ovaries)

contain the sex producing cells of the body and the organs (uterus, vagina, penis, seminal vesicles)

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Reproductive organ system function

transport of sec cells and the development of the fetus

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Urinary organ system

kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra

the kidneys are the filters of the body, the urinary bladder the storage organ and the urethra exit tube

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Urinary organ system function

ridding the body of nitrogenous wastes, adjusting chemical balance of body fluids, and maintaining blood volume

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Nervous organ system

brain, spinal cord, nerves

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Nervous organ system function

coordinates body movements, interprets environmental cues, and integrates information

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Muscular organ system

individual muscles

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Muscular organ system function

muscles move and strengthen joints, generate heat

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Respiratory organ system

nose, larynx, trachea, lungs

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Respiratory organ system function

the lings exchange gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between blood and air

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Skeletal organ system

each bone with the blood and nerves found in each bone

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Skeletal organ system function

supports the body, protects delicate organs, and produces blood

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Lymphatic organ system

the lymph noes, spleen, thymus, tonsils

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Lymphatic organ system function

to protect the body from foreign particles (bacteria, viruses, fungi)

the immune system

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Integumentary organ system

skin ,hair follicles, nails

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Integumentary organ system function

protects the body against microorganisms, keeps the body from drying out, and produces vitamin D

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Digestive organ system

mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, intestines

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Digestive organ system function

provides nutrients and water to the body and removes waste

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Endocrine organ system

organs that produce hormones

thyriod glands,adrenal glands

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Circulatory organ system

the heart, blood, and blood vessels make up this system, the heat is the pump of the system and the blood vessels are the delivery and return portion of the system

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Circulatory organ system function

transporting oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other material through the body

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Anatomic position

body is upright, facing forward, arms and legs straights, palms facing forward, feet flat on the ground, eyes open

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Quadruped

four legged animals

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Dorsal

the back side of the animal

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Ventral

the belly side of the animal

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Anterior or cephalic

front or head end of the animal

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Posterior or caudal

rear or tail end of the animal

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proximal

refers to region close to the mouth

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Distal

refers to region close to the anus

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Parietal

in reference to the body walls

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Visceral

in reference to area closer to the internal organs

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Ipsilateral

same side of the body

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Contralateral

refers to being on the other side left or right

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Superior

above

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Inferior

below

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Medial

towards the midline

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Lateral

towards the side

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Superficial

towards the surface

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Deep

towards the core

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Anterior

to the front

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Posterior

to the back

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Cranial cavity

houses the brain

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vertebral canal

encloses the spinal cord

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thoracic cavity

superior to the diaphragm housing the lings and the mediastinum

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Mediastinum

which contains the heart the pericardial membranes and the large vessels associated with the heart

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Abdominopelvic cavity

is inferior to the diagram and is subdivided into the abdominal and pelvic cavities

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What are the three sectioning planes

transverse plan

frontal plane

sagittal plane

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Transverse plan

a cut that divides the body or organ into superior and inferior parts

horizontal cut

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Frontal plane

a cut that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions

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Sagittal plane

a cut that divides the body into left and right portions

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Median (Midsagittal) plane

a cut that divides the body or organs equally into left and right portions

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Parasagittal plane

a cut that divides the body into unequal left and right portions

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

Reproductive

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

Urinary

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

Nervous

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

Muscular

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

Respiratory

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

skeletal

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

Lymphatic

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

Integumentary

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

Digestive

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

Endocrine

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<p>What organ system is this</p>

What organ system is this

Circulatory

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<p>What sectioning plane is this</p>

What sectioning plane is this

Frontal plane

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<p>What sectioning plane is this</p>

What sectioning plane is this

Sagittal plane

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<p>What sectioning plane is this</p>

What sectioning plane is this

Transverse plane

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