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300 Terms

1

over farming

loss of fertility due to over using land and not replenishing nutrients

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2

overgrazing

Continual eating of grass and roots without allowing them to regrow

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3

homosapiens sapiens

modern humans

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4

Paleolithic Period

AKA Stone Age-- period of human prehistory defined by the development of stone tools-- extents to the development of humans and how they’d adapt to their changing environment

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5

Neolithic Revolution

dramatic changes/development in how people lived based on the development of agriculture

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6

Bronze Age

Discovery of bronze early civilization and written history

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7

monotheism

religion that only worships one deity

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8

civilization

large society of cities and states

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9

Core and foundational civilizations

Civilizations that heavily influence successor civilizations in their regions

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10

indus valley (india), mesopotamia (Tigris and Euphrates), nile valley, haung river valley, olmecs, meso america and andes mountain

what are examples of core and foundational civilizations

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11

Jericho

mesoamerica-- west bank of jordan river-- one of the first cities created-- judeo-christianity

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12

Catal Huyuck

turkey-- important for art.. excavation

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13

textiles

items made of cloth

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14

specialization of labor

process of allowing people to focus on limited tasks/skills

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15

hunter-forager

survival by hunting animals an foraging

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16

Agriculture

practice of raising crops/livestock in controlled continual basis

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17

surplus

Having more than needed

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18

domestication

process of adapting/farming plants and animals for human use

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19

nomadic pastoralism

people moving based on moving herds of animals from pasture to pasture

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20

kinship group

several related families moving in together hunting for food

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21

clan

larger group of relatives together

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22

tribe

Multiple clans

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23

patriarchal

society dominated by men

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24

egalitarian

equal society-- hunter gathering

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25

artisans

people who made objects people needed

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26

merchants

people who buy and sell goods

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27

social stratification

idea that a person gained wealth through jewelry and bigger and better decorated houses/land

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28

priest/priestesses

person who is authorized to perform rituals for a religion

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29

Tigris and Euphrates

rivers SW of asia and iraq-- mesopotamia

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30

mespotamia

cradle of civilization-- sumerians, babylonians, assyrians

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31

fertile crescent

large area of yummy fertile land that overlaps with mesopotamia

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32

Carthage

Phoenician colony-- important trading post in the north coast of Africa

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33

Sahara

desert zone in Africa; north

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34

Kalahari

desert zone in africa; south

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35

Nile River

starts in Africa and flow out to the Mediterranean Sea; Egypt

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36

desertification

creation of desert like conditions

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37

Indus River Valley

comprised of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro-- Harappan, Aryans/dravidians

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38

environmental degradation

Deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources

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39

deforestation

Permanent forest clearance

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40

Huang He (AKA Yellow River) and Chiang Jiang

rivers important for chinese development

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41

Ioess

fertile yellow soil that gained the name for Huang He

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42

Mesoamerica

reigion of southern North America that contains Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua (Charvin, Moche, Olmecs mayan and aztecs)-- one of the two early centers of civilization in america

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43

maize

corn

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44

oceania

region in the Pacific ocean

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45

polynesia

islands

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46

Division of Labor

division of the production process into different stages

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47

Barter

trade goods without exchange of currency

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48

polytheistic

worship of gods

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49

Zigurat

temple

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50

Astronomy

Mesopotamia;Babylonians -- study of objects outside of Earth

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51

Astrology

predicting the future by studying the movement of the stars and planets

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52

Hebrews

founded by Abraham-- ancestors of israelites and Jews-- lived in Caanin- present day Israel Palestine and Lebanon

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53

Israelites

descendant of Hebrews- islam

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54

Jews

descendants of Hebrews-- experiences diaspora

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55

Abraham

left Ur and founded Hebrews-- revered in Judaism, Christianity and Islam

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56

Moses

another important figure in Judaism Christianity and Islam-- founded Ten Commandments

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57

Jewish Dispora

spreading of Jews throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East

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58

Aten

Egypt-- sun god-- Akhenaten tried to convert Egypt to worship this deity (failed)

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59

mummification

egyptian death practice-- removing organs, drying, and wrapping the body in cloth

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60

Aryans

indo-european speaking people

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61

dravidians

indigenous people of the NW indian sub-continent

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62

Hindi

indo-aryan language

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63

sanskirt

aryan sacred language

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64

Vedas

large body of religious text written in sanskirt

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65

Rig Veda

vedas

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66

Vedas Upanishads

subdivision in vedas

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67

brahmin

aryan priest-- highest position in caste system

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68

Vedic Age

period between late Bronze age to early iron age of indian history where vedic literature and the Vedas were being developed

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69

brahma

hindu concept of the universal soul-- everyone is originally a part of it and are trying to reach this state

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70

dharma

hindu concept of religious and moral law

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71

karma

hindi concept of a person’s actions influencing their destiny after life

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72

moksha

enlightenment-- eternal peace/unity with brahma

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73

ancestor veneration

chinese-- belief that the dead have a continued existence and have the ability to speak with the gods

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74

golden age

period of general peace and prosperity

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75

scribes

class of people that could read and write-- kept track of items, history, stories, etc

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76

The Epic of Gilgamesh

oldest written story

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77

Cuneiform

earliest known writing system made by sumerians

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78

Alphabetic script

language adapted from cuneiform and developed by Phoenicians

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79

pictograph

picture representing a word/idea

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80

glyph

specific representation of a character in a language

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81

hieroglyphics

egyptian writing/language system consisting of picture writing-- used paper/papyus

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82

papyrus

plant

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83

Book of the Dead

Egyptian funerary text for a dead pharaoh

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84

Indo-European Language

language family native to Europe, Iranian Plateau, and Northern Indian subcontinent

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85

Austronesian-speaking people

group of people in Taiwan/Philippines that speak austronesian languages

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86

feudalism

feudal system based on king to peasant hierarchy-- babylonians egyptians chinese etc

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87

kingdom

territory ruled by a king

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88

empire

large territory including multiple diverse groups controlled by one single authority

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89

city states

Independent parts of a civilization

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90

sumer

one of the first and oldest civilizations-- found in mesopotamia

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91

Uruk

largest city in Sumer

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92

Babylonians

persians from Ian-- took over Sumer-- King Hammurabi, code of hammurabi, etc

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93

Phoenicians

occupied Lebanon Israel and Jordan-- had carthage and developed alphbetic script

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94

egypt; old kingdom

first kingdom of egypt

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95

egypt; middle kingdom

middle kingdom/era of egypt

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96

egypt; new kingdom

last kingdom of egypt

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97

hyksos

pastoral nomadics from mondern syria

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98

Hittitus

empire that bordered egypt

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99

nubia

empire upper on the nile

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100

kush

re-emergence of nubia after its decline

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