BIO 307 exam 1 study

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Define Anatomy

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140 Terms

1

Define Anatomy

study of structure

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2

Define Physiology

Study of function

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3

Who is Hippocrates?

Father of medicine

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4

Who is Aristotle?

first speculated about the function of the human body

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5

Who is Herophilus?

"father of anatomy" first to publicly dissect and compare human and animals

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6

Who is Galen?

"prince of physicians" stressed importance of experimentation in medicine

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7

Who is Claude Bernard?

constancy or stability of our internal environment is required for us to exist

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8

Who is Walter Cannon?

coined the term homeostasis

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9

What is microscopic?

not visible to the naked eye

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10

what is gross? (macroscopic)

what you can see with the naked eye

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11

what is an organization?

complex structure and order

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12

What is metabolism?

the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life

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13

what is the set point?

where your body wants to stay

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14

what are sensors?

detects any changes from set point

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15

what is the integrating center?

process information from sensors

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16

What are effectors?

make changes

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17

what is a negative feedback loop?

effectors produce a change that is in the opposite direction of the original change

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18

what is a positive feedback loop?

once it is stimulated, it just keeps going

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19

What is the structural organization of the body?

atoms, molecules, macromolecule, organelle, cells, tissues, organs, systems, organism

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20

Anterior (ventral)

front of the body

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21

Posterior (dorsal)

back of body

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22

Superior

toward the head

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23

Inferior

away from the head

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24

Medial

toward the midline

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25

Lateral

away from the midline

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26

Proximal

Closer to the point of attachment

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27

Distal

Farther from the trunk of the body

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28

Neutrons

neutral charge

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29

Protons

Positively charged particles

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30

Electrons

Negatively charged particles

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31

valence electrons

electrons in the outermost shell

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32

What is the relationship between protons and electrons?

number of electrons = number of protons

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33

What are covalent bonds?

a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs

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34

What are nonpolar covalent bonds?

electrons are shared equally, not water soluble

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35

What are polar covalent bonds?

unequal sharing of electrons

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36

What are ionic bonds?

transfer of electrons

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37

What is a positively charged atom?

cation

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38

What is a negatively charged atom?

anion

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39

What do cations and anions form?

ionic compounds

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40

What's an example of an ionic compound?

sodium chloride

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41

What is ionization?

the process of becoming charged

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42

are ionic bonds weak or strong?

a strong DRY bond - but weakens as it hydrates (dissolves)

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43

Hydrophilic

water loving

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44

Hydrophobic

water hating

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45

What is water

polar molecule, good solvent, when split it can contribute to the pH of a substance

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46

When a substance has more hydrogen ions it is...

acidic

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47

When a substance has more OH- ions it is...

basic

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48

What are buffers?

stabilizes hydrogen concentration in a solution

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49

What is acidosis?

blood pH below 7.35

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50

What is alkalosis?

pH above 7.45

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51

What is alkaline?

solutions with a pH above 7, like a basic

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52

What are the major macromolecules?

carbohydrate, lipid, protein

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53

What is a monosaccharide?

simple sugar

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54

What is a disaccharide?

2 monosaccharides joined together.

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55

What is a polysaccharide?

many sugars

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56

What do lipids consist of?

glycerol head and fatty acid tails, they are hydrophobic

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57

What are triglycerides?

fats and oils; 1 glycerol molecule joined with 3 fatty acids

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58

What are saturated fats?

Solid at room temperature, higher melting point, single bond

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59

What are unsaturated fats?

liquid at room temperature, double bond

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60

What are phospholipids?

a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule

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61

What are steroids?

Lipids characterized by carbon skeleton made up of four fused rings. E.g. Cholesterol

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62

What are anabolic steroids?

synthetic forms of testosterone

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63

What are proteins?

amino acids

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64

What are amino acids?

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Each has an amino group, carboxyl group, and functional group.

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65

What causes protein denaturation?

Increase in temperature, pH change, Chemical, Enzymes

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66

What are amino acids linked by?

peptide bonds

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67

What is a glycoprotein?

protein with carbohydrate attached

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68

What is a lipoprotein?

any of a group of soluble proteins that combine with and transport fat or other lipids in the blood plasma.

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69

What are enzymes?

biological catalysts that speed up reactions, do not change the nature of the reaction

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70

What is activation energy?

energy needed to start a reaction

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71

What are catalysts?

substances that speed up chemical reactions at lower temps

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72

What are active sites?

the dent in a molecule that is exactly the right size and shape for a part of the molecule to fit in. when the molecule is in the active site, the enzyme begins to break it down

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73

What are substrates?

the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions

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74

What is the lock and key model?

Enzymes are specific to the substrate they bind too.

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75

What is the induced fit model?

the active site molds around the substrate to form the enzyme-substrate complex.

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76

What is an enzyme-substrate complex?

the physical interaction between enzyme and substrate... duh

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77

What is enzyme activity?

the amount of product produced per unit time

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78

What is enzyme activity influenced by?

temperature, pH, substrate concentration

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79

What does temperature do to enzymes?

increases the rate of reactions until the temp reaches a few degrees above body temp

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80

How does pH affect enzyme activity?

Each enzyme has an optimal pH at which it can perform at its maximum rate. Too high or too low of a pH deviates the enzyme from its maximum rate.

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81

What are coenzymes?

organic molecules derived from vitamins that function in the transfer of a chemical group

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82

What are cofactors?

nonprotein enzyme helpers

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83

What is substrate concentration?

Activity increases as the substrate concentration increases but will eventually level out.

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84

What is a metabolic pathway?

begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product

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85

What is allosteric inhibition?

when an allosteric inhibitor binds to the allosteric binding site, substrates can no longer bind with the enzyme

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86

what is end product inhibition?

When the final product in a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzyme that acts earlier on in the pathway

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87

what are cells?

Basic unit of life

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88

What is the plasma membrane?

a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell

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89

What are integral proteins?

Proteins that penetrate the hydrophobic core (channels, carriers, transporters)

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90

What are peripheral proteins?

They are not embedded. They are appendages. (enzymes, receptors, structural support)

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91

What is the fluid mosaic model?

describes the arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane

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92

What are cilia?

tiny hair-like projections used to move a cell or to move things past a cell

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93

What is cystic fibrosis?

It is a genetic disorder of the cell membranes. Causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in air passages and pancreas.

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94

What are flagella?

long whip-like projections

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95

What are microvilli?

even smaller projections that increase the surface area of the cell further

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96

What is bulk transport?

the transport of very large molecules in and out of the cell

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97

What is phagocytosis?

cellular eating

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98

what is endocytosis?

the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.

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99

What is exocytosis?

a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.

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100

What is intracellular fluid?

fluid inside the cell. 67% of our water

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