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study of structure
Study of function
Who is Hippocrates?
Father of medicine
Who is Aristotle?
first speculated about the function of the human body
Who is Herophilus?
"father of anatomy" first to publicly dissect and compare human and animals
Who is Galen?
"prince of physicians" stressed importance of experimentation in medicine
Who is Claude Bernard?
constancy or stability of our internal environment is required for us to exist
Who is Walter Cannon?
coined the term homeostasis
What is microscopic?
not visible to the naked eye
what is gross? (macroscopic)
what you can see with the naked eye
what is an organization?
complex structure and order
What is metabolism?
the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life
what is the set point?
where your body wants to stay
what are sensors?
detects any changes from set point
what is the integrating center?
process information from sensors
What are effectors?
what is a negative feedback loop?
effectors produce a change that is in the opposite direction of the original change
what is a positive feedback loop?
once it is stimulated, it just keeps going
What is the structural organization of the body?
atoms, molecules, macromolecule, organelle, cells, tissues, organs, systems, organism
front of the body
back of body
toward the head
away from the head
toward the midline
away from the midline
Closer to the point of attachment
Farther from the trunk of the body
Positively charged particles
Negatively charged particles
electrons in the outermost shell
What is the relationship between protons and electrons?
number of electrons = number of protons
What are covalent bonds?
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs
What are nonpolar covalent bonds?
electrons are shared equally, not water soluble
What are polar covalent bonds?
unequal sharing of electrons
What are ionic bonds?
transfer of electrons
What is a positively charged atom?
What is a negatively charged atom?
What do cations and anions form?
What's an example of an ionic compound?
What is ionization?
the process of becoming charged
are ionic bonds weak or strong?
a strong DRY bond - but weakens as it hydrates (dissolves)
What is water
polar molecule, good solvent, when split it can contribute to the pH of a substance
When a substance has more hydrogen ions it is...
When a substance has more OH- ions it is...
What are buffers?
stabilizes hydrogen concentration in a solution
What is acidosis?
blood pH below 7.35
What is alkalosis?
pH above 7.45
What is alkaline?
solutions with a pH above 7, like a basic
What are the major macromolecules?
carbohydrate, lipid, protein
What is a monosaccharide?
What is a disaccharide?
2 monosaccharides joined together.
What is a polysaccharide?
What do lipids consist of?
glycerol head and fatty acid tails, they are hydrophobic
What are triglycerides?
fats and oils; 1 glycerol molecule joined with 3 fatty acids
What are saturated fats?
Solid at room temperature, higher melting point, single bond
What are unsaturated fats?
liquid at room temperature, double bond
What are phospholipids?
a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
What are steroids?
Lipids characterized by carbon skeleton made up of four fused rings. E.g. Cholesterol
What are anabolic steroids?
synthetic forms of testosterone
What are proteins?
What are amino acids?
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Each has an amino group, carboxyl group, and functional group.
What causes protein denaturation?
Increase in temperature, pH change, Chemical, Enzymes
What are amino acids linked by?
What is a glycoprotein?
protein with carbohydrate attached
What is a lipoprotein?
any of a group of soluble proteins that combine with and transport fat or other lipids in the blood plasma.
What are enzymes?
biological catalysts that speed up reactions, do not change the nature of the reaction
What is activation energy?
energy needed to start a reaction
What are catalysts?
substances that speed up chemical reactions at lower temps
What are active sites?
the dent in a molecule that is exactly the right size and shape for a part of the molecule to fit in. when the molecule is in the active site, the enzyme begins to break it down
What are substrates?
the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
What is the lock and key model?
Enzymes are specific to the substrate they bind too.
What is the induced fit model?
the active site molds around the substrate to form the enzyme-substrate complex.
What is an enzyme-substrate complex?
the physical interaction between enzyme and substrate... duh
What is enzyme activity?
the amount of product produced per unit time
What is enzyme activity influenced by?
temperature, pH, substrate concentration
What does temperature do to enzymes?
increases the rate of reactions until the temp reaches a few degrees above body temp
How does pH affect enzyme activity?
Each enzyme has an optimal pH at which it can perform at its maximum rate. Too high or too low of a pH deviates the enzyme from its maximum rate.
What are coenzymes?
organic molecules derived from vitamins that function in the transfer of a chemical group
What are cofactors?
nonprotein enzyme helpers
What is substrate concentration?
Activity increases as the substrate concentration increases but will eventually level out.
What is a metabolic pathway?
begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product