LBYZOOL Activity 07-09 (Lab Exam 3)

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Anura

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Toad External Anatomy, The Skeletal System, & The Muscular System

283 Terms

1

Anura

Order frogs and toads belong in

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Frog

  • "Rana pipiens"

  • smooth or slimy skin that is moist

  • long, strong, hind legs that aid them in leaping

  • big bulging eyes

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Toad

  • "Rhinella marina"

  • thicker, bumpy, skin that is usually dry

  • shorter hind legs, more suitable for walking

  • more subtle eyes

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4

2 Major Layers of Frog Skin

Epidermis & Dermis

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Epidermis

layer of frog skin:

  • stratified epithelium

  • has 2 sublayers: stratum corneum & germinativum

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stratum corneum

sublayer of frog epidermis:

  • outermost stratified layer

  • thin dead squamous keratinized cells

  • constantly removed when shed

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Ecdysis

  • aka molting

  • process when frogs shed its skin

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stratum germinativum

sublayer of frog epidermis:

  • living cuboidal to columnar stratified epithelial tissue

  • continuously divide to replace the shed-off layer

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chromatophores

  • connective tissue which contains pigments

  • at the junction of epidermis and dermis

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melanophores

black pigment containing cells found at the junction of the dermis and epidermis

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Dermis

layer of frog skin:

  • inner layer of skin

  • has 2 sublayers: stratum laxum/spongiosum & compactum

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stratum laxum/spongiosum

layer of frog dermis:

  • outer sublayer of dermis

  • loosely arranged connective tissue & blood vessels

  • cutaneous glands gives spongy appearance

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13

cutaneous glands

posion glands & mucous glands

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14

poison gland

gland in stratum laxum/spongiosum:

  • larger glands

  • less numerous

  • posses thin epithelial wall

  • blue arrow

<p>gland in stratum laxum/spongiosum:</p><ul><li><p>larger glands</p></li><li><p>less numerous</p></li><li><p>posses thin epithelial wall</p></li><li><p>blue arrow</p></li></ul>
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mucous glands

gland in stratum laxum/spongiosum:

  • small

  • more numerous

  • thicker wall

  • red arrow

<p>gland in stratum laxum/spongiosum:</p><ul><li><p>small</p></li><li><p>more numerous</p></li><li><p>thicker wall</p></li><li><p>red arrow</p></li></ul>
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stratum compactum

layer of frog dermis:

layers of white fibrous connective tissue

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dorsal

back or upper surface of an organism

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ventral

stomach or lower surface of an organism

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anterior

head end of an organism

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posterior

tail end of an organism

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bilateral symmetry

left & right halves of an organism are mirrored portions

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22

main axis of toads

horizontal axis

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3 planes of the toad body

frontal, sagittal (longitudinal), & transverse (cross)

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frontal

plane dividing the body into dorsal & ventral sections

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sagittal

plane dividing the body into left & right sections

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transverse

plane dividing the body into anterior & posterior sections

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locations relative to the center of the body

medial, lateral, proximal, proximal, & distal

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medial

location near the middle

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lateral

location to the sides

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proximal

part of a structure that is nearer the origin

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distal

part farther from the origin

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regions of the body

axial & appendicular regions

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axial region

region:

  • head & trunk

  • joined together by a very short neck, thereby restricting movement of the head

  • structural functions

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head

portion in axial region:

contains snout, mouth, external nares, eyes, browspot, tympanic membrane, & paratoid gland

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snout

external part of head:

  • blunt apex found on the tip of the head

  • most anterior portion of the head

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mouth

external part of head:

  • for feeding

  • extending tongue

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external nares

external part of head:

  • paired openings at the tip of the snout connected to internal nares (breathing)

  • arrow 1

<p>external part of head:</p><ul><li><p>paired openings at the tip of the snout connected to internal nares (breathing)</p></li><li><p>arrow 1</p></li></ul>
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eyes

external part of head:

  • dorsolateral portion of the head

  • used to push down food; closes when they swallow

  • contains: upper & lower eyelids, nictitating membrane

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upper eyelid

part of eye:

thicker eyelid; does NOT move

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lower eyelid

part of eye:

thinner eyelid; moves

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nictitating membrane

part of eye:

  • thin, transparent

  • protects eyeballs

  • keeps eyes moist when underwater

  • arrow 2

<p>part of eye:</p><ul><li><p>thin, transparent</p></li><li><p>protects eyeballs</p></li><li><p>keeps eyes moist when underwater</p></li><li><p>arrow 2</p></li></ul>
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browspot

external part of head:

  • circular spot between the eyes

  • displays where part of the skull development took place

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tympanic membrane

external part of head:

  • Posterolateral to the eye

  • ovoid region of tightly drawn skin

  • frog’s ear / ear drum

  • covers auditory canal

  • protects inner ear from outer environment

  • arrow 3

<p>external part of head:</p><ul><li><p>Posterolateral to the eye</p></li><li><p>ovoid region of tightly drawn skin</p></li><li><p>frog’s ear / ear drum</p></li><li><p>covers auditory canal</p></li><li><p>protects inner ear from outer environment</p></li><li><p>arrow 3</p></li></ul>
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paratoid gland

external part of head:

  • behind tympanic membrane at each side of head

  • large swelling

  • large aggregate of poison glands

  • secrete poisonous mucus

  • only found in toad

  • arrow 4

<p>external part of head:</p><ul><li><p>behind tympanic membrane at each side of head</p></li><li><p>large swelling</p></li><li><p>large aggregate of poison glands</p></li><li><p>secrete poisonous mucus</p></li><li><p>only found in toad</p></li><li><p>arrow 4</p></li></ul>
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Croak

  • only male frogs can do this

  • to find a mate & defend their territory

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Trunk

portion in axial region:

contains sacral hump & cloacal aperture

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sacral hump

external part of trunk:

pelvis is elongated and higher at the spine

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cloacal aperture

external part of trunk:

  • aka anus

  • most posterior part of the trunk on the dorsal side

  • exit cavity for excretory, urinary, reproductive system

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appendicular region

region:

  • forelimbs & hindlimbs

  • function for movement

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Forelimbs

portion in appendicular region:

  • anterior pair

  • short

  • used to raise or support the body when the frog is at rest

  • contains: upper & lower arm, wrist, & hand

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brachium

external part of forelimbs:

  • upper arm

  • arrow 6

<p>external part of forelimbs:</p><ul><li><p>upper arm</p></li><li><p>arrow 6</p></li></ul>
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antebrachium

external part of forelimbs:

  • lower arm / forearm

  • arrow 5

<p>external part of forelimbs:</p><ul><li><p>lower arm / forearm</p></li><li><p>arrow 5</p></li></ul>
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carpus

external part of forelimbs:

wrist

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manus

external part of forelimbs:

  • hand

  • 4 digits + prepollux

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prepollux

5th rudimentary thumb

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hindlimbs

portion in appendicular region:

  • posterior pair

  • long

  • well adapted for jumping and swimming

  • contains: thigh, shank, & pes

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thigh

external part of hindlimbs:

  • upper leg

  • arrow 7

<p>external part of hindlimbs:</p><ul><li><p>upper leg</p></li><li><p>arrow 7</p></li></ul>
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crus

external part of hindlimbs:

  • shank / lower leg

  • arrow 8

<p>external part of hindlimbs:</p><ul><li><p>shank / lower leg</p></li><li><p>arrow 8</p></li></ul>
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pes

external part of hindlimbs:

  • foot

  • contains tarsus, metatarsus, 5 fully-webbed toes + prehallux

  • arrow 10

<p>external part of hindlimbs:</p><ul><li><p>foot</p></li><li><p>contains tarsus, metatarsus, 5 fully-webbed toes + prehallux</p></li><li><p>arrow 10</p></li></ul>
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tarsus

external part of hindlimbs:

  • long ankle

  • arrow 9

<p>external part of hindlimbs:</p><ul><li><p>long ankle</p></li><li><p>arrow 9</p></li></ul>
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metatarsus

external part of hindlimbs:

instep

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prehallux

6th rudimentary toe

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skin on the dorsal side

skin with warty appearance

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sex-distinguishing external characteristics

skin pigmentation in jaw, thumb pads, & relative size

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male frogs

sex of frog:

  • distinct dark pigmentation on skin on the ventral side of the jaw

  • generally smaller

  • thumb pads are enlarged or swollen

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Nuptial pad

  • patch of textured skin on male's enlarged thumb

  • helps cling to female during amplexus

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amplexus

  • mating position of frogs

  • false copulation

  • release sperm to water and not inside the female

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female frogs

sex of frog:

  • pigments are diffused (NO distinct dark pigmentation)

  • relatively bigger

  • thumb pads of the inner fingers are NOT swollen

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chloroform

  • liquid used as an anesthesia for the frog/toad specimen

  • rinsed off the dead/preserved specimen before dissection

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skeletal system

organ system:

  • serves as support or framework for the softer parts of the body

  • provide a firm surface for the attachment of muscles used in movement and locomotion

  • supplies calcium to the blood

  • important site in the formation of blood cells

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2 Types of Skeleton

Exoskeleton & Endoskeleton

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Exoskeleton

type of skeleton:

  • hardened bony or horny structures that develop in the skin and provide external protection to the animal

  • poorly developed in frogs

  • 2 kinds: chitinous & calcium-carbonate

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chitinous exoskeleton

type of exoskeleton:

  • made up of chitin

  • arthropods, insects, arachnids, crustaceans

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calcium-carbonate exoskeleton

type of exoskeleton:

  • hard shell

  • phylum mollusca: snail, bivalves (scallops)

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Endoskeleton

type of skeleton:

  • almost entirely of bone and cartilage

  • skeleton of frog

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Tendon

connective tissue that serves as attachment of (skeletal) muscles and bones

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Aponeurosis

broad, flat, and sheet-like tendon

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2 Types of Bone Structure

Compact Bone & Spongy Bone

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Compact Bone

type of bone structure:

  • dense layer from the outside of the bone

  • presence of concentric osteons

<p>type of bone structure:</p><ul><li><p>dense layer from the outside of the bone</p></li><li><p>presence of concentric osteons</p></li></ul>
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osteon

  • functional unit of compact bone

  • made up of lacunae, osteocytes, haversian canal, lamellae, & canaliculi

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lacunae

part of osteon:

tiny spaces in the matrix

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osteocytes

part of osteon:

bone cells trapped in lacunae

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haversian canal

part of osteon:

series of microscopic tubes with blood vessels and nerves

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lamellae

part of osteon:

concentric rings of bone

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canaliculi

part of osteon:

  • passageways for materials to move between cells

  • tiny channels between the lacunae

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spongy bone

type of bone structure:

  • aka Cancellous Bone

  • Sponge-like meshwork consisting of trabeculae

  • spaces are continuous & occupied by yellow bone marrow & blood vessels

<p>type of bone structure:</p><ul><li><p>aka Cancellous Bone</p></li><li><p>Sponge-like meshwork consisting of trabeculae</p></li><li><p>spaces are continuous &amp; occupied by yellow bone marrow &amp; blood vessels</p></li></ul>
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trabeculae

series of branching, overlapping plates of matrix in the spongy bone

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spaces in spongy bone

  • storage/pockets to hold blood-forming cells (hemopoietic tissue) of bone marrow

  • function in weight reduction

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yellow bone marrow

adipose tissue around the trabeculae

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axial endoskeleton

endoskeleton according to position:

  • located at the center or axis of the body

  • skull, visceral skeleton, vertebral column, ribs, & sternum

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appendicular endoskeleton

endoskeleton according to position:

  • located laterally or in the region of the extremities or appendages

  • pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, forelimbs, & hindlimbs

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skull

  • flattened dorsoventrally

  • wider posteriorly and narrow anteriorly

  • encloses the brain and sense organs

  • includes cranium & the visceral skeleton

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cranium

aka braincase

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nasal bones

bone in skull:

  • flat, triangular-shaped bones on the dorsal surface of the skull behind the nares

  • dark blue portion

<p>bone in skull:</p><ul><li><p>flat, triangular-shaped bones on the dorsal surface of the skull behind the nares</p></li><li><p>dark blue portion</p></li></ul>
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95

sphenethmoid

bone in skull:

median, single irregularly shaped bone posterior to nasal bones

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frontoparietal

bone in skull:

  • 2 long slender flat bones, posterior to the nasal bones

  • may be fused so they appear as a single bone

  • cover most of the brain

  • wide at posterior end, where they join the prootics

  • gray portion

<p>bone in skull:</p><ul><li><p>2 long slender flat bones, posterior to the nasal bones</p></li><li><p>may be fused so they appear as a single bone</p></li><li><p>cover most of the brain</p></li><li><p>wide at posterior end, where they join the prootics</p></li><li><p>gray portion</p></li></ul>
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prootics

bone in skull:

  • joined by frontoparietals

  • enclose inner ears

  • dark green portion

<p>bone in skull:</p><ul><li><p>joined by frontoparietals</p></li><li><p>enclose inner ears</p></li><li><p>dark green portion</p></li></ul>
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foramen magnum

bone in skull:

  • large opening at the posterior end of the skull where spinal cord passes

  • uncolored area under the gray portion

<p>bone in skull:</p><ul><li><p>large opening at the posterior end of the skull where spinal cord passes</p></li><li><p>uncolored area under the gray portion</p></li></ul>
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exoccipital

bone in skull:

  • surrounding the posterior part of the brain

  • bottom gray portion

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occipital condyles

bone in skull:

  • pair of prominent bones projecting from exoccipital

  • light blue portion

<p>bone in skull:</p><ul><li><p>pair of prominent bones projecting from exoccipital</p></li><li><p>light blue portion</p></li></ul>
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