Psych 201

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cognitive development

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109 Terms

1

cognitive development

the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory

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Culture

Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.

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developmental psychopathology

field of psychology that focuses on determining what is abnormal at any point in the developmental process by comparing and contrasting it with normal and expected changes that occur

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4

Equifinality

one symptom can have many causes

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5

Multifinality

various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings

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Incremental theories

theories in which development is a result of continuous quantitative changes

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7

Intersectionality

the interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.

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8

Nature vs. Nurture

Do genes (nature) or environmental factors (nurture) contribute more to a person's being?

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9

niche-picking

tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity

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10

parental ethnotheories

parental cultural belief systems

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11

peer review

a review by people with similar professional qualification

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12

perceptual bias

the tendency to see and understand something based on the way you expected it to be

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13

Physical Development

development involving the body's physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep

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14

positive youth development

an approach to finding ways to help all young people reach their full potential

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15

Qualitative changes

changes in the overall nature of what you are examining

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16

quantitative changes

Gradual, incremental change, as in the growth of a pine tree's girth.

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17

social policy

a national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens

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18

social-emotional development

Type of development involving a person's disposition, interaction with people and social groups, and emotions

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19

socialization

the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society

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20

socioeconomic status (SES)

A division of population based on occupation, income, and education.

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21

stage theories

approaches that propose that development involves a series of discontinuous, age-related phases

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22

Accommodation vs. Assimilation

using one's existing schema to interpret info vs. adapting one's schema to incorporate new info.

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23

anal stage

Freud's pychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions

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24

applies behavior analysis

application of reinforcement principles to teach skills and change behavior to shape social and language skills

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25

Behaviorism

the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only

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26

Chronosystem

in the bioecological model, historical changes that influence the other systems

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27

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

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28

connectionist network

-based on neural networks but are not necessarily identical to them

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29

Constructivism

an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be

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30

developmental cognitive neuroscience

explores links between development, cognitive processes, and the brain

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31

developmental theory

A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth. A developmental theory provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development.

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32

dynamic assessment

a testing procedure that uses a test-intervene-test procedure to assess the examinee's potential to change

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dynamic systems theory

the view that development is a self-organizing process, in which new forms of behavior emerge through consistent interactions between a biological being and cultural and environmental contexts

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34

Ecological Systems Theory

views the person as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment

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35

ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

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36

Id

a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

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Superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations

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38

embodied cognition

the influence of bodily sensations, gestures, and other states on cognitive preferences and judgements

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39

Equilibration

A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next.

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40

Ethology

The scientific study of how animals behave, particularly in natural environments.

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41

Exosystem

social settings that a person may not experience firsthand but that still influence development

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42

Extinction (operant conditioning)

decreases in the frequency of a behavior when the behavior is no longer reinforced

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43

genital stage

Freud's last stage of personality development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood, during which the sexual conflicts of childhood resurface (at puberty) and are often resolved during adolescence).

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44

Imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

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45

latency stage

the fourth psychosexual stage, in which the primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills

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46

Macrosystem

consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources

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47

Mesosystem

provides connections across microsystems

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48

Microsystem

immediate environment

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49

negative reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)

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50

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

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51

oral stage

Freud's first stage of psychosexual development during which pleasure is centered in the mouth

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52

phallic stage

Freud's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure

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53

phobia

fear

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54

positive reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

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55

psychoanalytic theory

A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior

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56

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

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57

psychosocial stages

In Erikson's theory, the developmental stages refer to eight major challenges that appear successively across the lifespan, which require an individual to rethink his or her goals and relationships with others.

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58

punishment

an event that decreases the behavior that it follows

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59

Reinforcement

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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60

Scaffolding

the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth

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61

Schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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62

self-efficacy

one's sense of competence and effectiveness

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63

shaping behavior

the process of guiding learning in graduated steps using reinforcement or lack of reinforcement

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64

social cognitive theory

referring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to understanding the social world

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65

stores model

the idea that information is processed through a series of mental locations (sensory to short-term to long-term memory "stores")

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66

unconscious mind

level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness

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67

zone of proximal development

phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction

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68

Applied Research

Research that has the primary goal of solving problems or improving the human condition

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Archival records

Data collected at an earlier date that are used for research purposes

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70

Attrition

The loss of participants over the course of a longitudinal study

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71

Basic research

Research that has the primary goal of adding to our body of knowledge rather than having immediate direct application

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72

Case study

An in-depth study of a single individual or small group of individuals that uses multiple methods of study

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73

Checklist

A prepared list of behaviors, characteristics, or judgments observers use to assess a child’s development

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74

Clinical interview

An interview strategy in which the interviewer can deviate from a standard set of questions to gather additional information

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75

Cohort effect

Differences between groups in a crosssectional or sequential study that are attributable to the fact that the participants have had different life experiences

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76

Control group

The group in an experiment that does not get the special treatment and provides a baseline against which the experimental group can be compared

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77

Correlational research design

Research design that measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two or more variables that are not created by the experimenter

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78

Cross-sectional design

A research design that uses multiple groups of participants who represent the age span of interest to the researcher

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79

Dependent variable

The outcome of interest to the researcher that is measured at the end of an experiment

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80

Effect size

A statistical measure of how large the difference is between groups being compared

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81

Ethnography

A qualitative research technique in which a researcher lives with a group of people as a participant observer, taking part in the group’s everyday life while observing and interviewing people in the group

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82

Experimental group

The group in an experiment that gets the special treatment that is of interest to the researcher

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83

Experimental research design

A research design in which an experimental group is administered a treatment and the outcome is compared with a control group that does not receive the treatment

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84

Generalize

To draw inferences from the findings of research on a specific sample about a larger group or population

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85

Hypothesis

A prediction, often based on theoretical ideas or observations, that is tested by the scientific method

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86

Independent variable

The variable in an experiment that the researcher manipulates

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87

Interview

A data collection technique in which an interviewer poses questions to a respondent

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88

Longitudinal design

A research design that follows one group of individuals and gathers data from them at several points in time

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89

Meta-analysis

A statistical procedure that combines data from different studies to determine whether there is a consistent pattern of findings across studies

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Microgenetic design

A research design that involves frequent observations of participants during a time of change or transition.

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91

Natural or “quasi” experiment

Research in which the members of the groups are selected because they represent different “treatment” conditions

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92

Negative correlation

A correlation in which increases in one variable are associated with decreases in another variable

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93

Norm

The average or typical performance of an individual of a given age on a test

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94

Observer bias

The tendency for an observer to notice and report events that the observer is expecting to see

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95

Operationalize

To define a concept in a way that allows it to be measured

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Population

A set that includes everyone in a category of individuals that researchers are interested in studying (for example, all toddlers, all teenagers with learning disabilities)

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Positive correlation

A correlation in which increases in one variable are associated with increases in another variable

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98

Questionnaire

A written form of a survey

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99

Random assignment

Assigning participants to the experimental and control groups by chance so that the groups will not systematically differ from each other

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100

Reliability

The ability of a measure to produce consistent results

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