Gen Psych Ch. 1-3

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

structuralism, Wilhelm Wundt

1 / 102

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

103 Terms

1

structuralism, Wilhelm Wundt

understanding the conscious existence through experience

New cards
2

Wilhelm Wundt

1876, did experiments to discover the components of peoples minds, by making test subjects click a button every time they heard a sound or saw an image. invented introspection. a father of psychology. German

New cards
3

Edward Titchener

also discovered structuralism. English

New cards
4

functionalism

focus on how mental activities helped an organism adapt to its environment

New cards
5

William James, functionalism

disagreed with Wundt, believing that the importance was WHY the mind functions as it does, rather than WHAT it does. discovered that the mind is a continuous flow of thought. emphasizes that mental development adapts to survival. believed Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution American

New cards
6

Charles Darwin, theory of evolution

all organisms must survive, reproduce, and evolve

New cards
7

Sigmund Freud, psychoanalytic theory

1910, studied hysteria and neurosis. believed that the unconscious mind could be accessed through dream analysis and childhood experience analysis. Austrian

New cards
8

Gestalt Psychology

German psychologists Kohler, Koffka, and Wertheimer discovered that the sensory experience can be broken down into indiviIvandual parts, and people respond to these parts in perception.

New cards
9

Ivan Pavlov

classical conditioning, with dog experiments studying their salivation in relation to food and in relation to a bell that they associated with food.

New cards
10

John B. Watson, Behaviorism

objective analysis of the mind is impossible, so he studied observable behavior. his studies and concepts are used in cognitive behavioral therapy

New cards
11

B. F. Skinner

behavior is affected by its consequences. behavior can be modified through its reward and punishment

New cards
12

Abraham Maslow, Humanism

The Hierarchy of Need

Self-Actualization: Inner fulfillment

Esteem: Self-worth, Accomplishment, Confidence

Social: Family, Friendship, Intimacy, Bonding

Security: Safety, Employment, Assets

Physiological: Food, Water, Shelter, Warmth

New cards
13

Carl Rogers, Humanism

therapists need more unconditional regard, genuineness, and empathy for their patients in order to take an active and efficient role in therapy

New cards
14

Cognitive Revolution

  1. after a long-term rejection of studying the mind and only studying behavior, the introduction of computer science reintroduced the study of the mind

New cards
15

Noam Chomsley

  1. psychology needed to incorporate mental functioning into its focus in order to understand human behavior

New cards
16

Margaret Floy Washburn

first woman to get a doctorate in psychology. researched animal behavior and published an authoritative text on it

New cards
17

Mary Calkins

Harvard student under William James, receive dthe first APA, but Harvard wouldn’t release it to her since she was a ‘guest student’ and a woman

New cards
18

Biopsychology

how the structure and function of the nervous system affects behavior (EX: sleep, drug use, sensory, motor, ingestive, reproductive, neurodevelopment plasticity of neurons)

New cards
19

Cognitive Psychology

attention, memory, thinking, intelligence, problem-solving

New cards
20

empirical evidence

finding information through observations

New cards
21

inductive reasoning

conclusions drawn from observation. theories or hypotheses start through deductive reasoning, then it’s tested, then the results lead to new conclusions and hypoetheses

New cards
22

deductive reasoning

the results are predicted based on the general premise

New cards
23

longitudinal research

the same population is tested throughout their lifespan

New cards
24

cross-sectional research

multiple segments of a population are tested at a single timeq

New cards
25

attrition

reduction of the number of participants over time, in longitudinal studies

New cards
26

descriptive research

utilizes questionnaires, surveys, and other observing methods

New cards
27

correlation research

from -1 to 1. finds the correlation between the variables. correlation does not equal causation. can reveal a confounding (third) variable

New cards
28

experimental research

having a hypothesis and creating a methodology to apply to the participants in order to discover a result

New cards
29

operational definition

description of what actions and operations will be used to measure the dependent variables and manipulate independent variables

New cards
30

random assignment

all experiment participants have equal chance to end up on either side of the experiment (placebo or real drug)

New cards
31

International Review Board (IRB)

consider scientist’s experiment ideas and dictate whether or not they are ethical. ensure that all experiments give their participants informed consent and acknowledgement of possible risks and that they are free to leave at any time

New cards
32

statistical analysis

determines how likely the results were to have occurred by coincidence or on accident, as in, be insignificant. if the odds of it occurring by accident are 5% or less, then it is significant

New cards
33

reliability

same results every time

New cards
34

inter-rater reliability

measure of agreement among observers and how they classify the event

New cards
35

validity

actually measures what it’s meant to measure

New cards
36

debriefing

informing patients of potential risks before the test, and explaining everything that occurred and why after the test, to minimize long-term distress

New cards
37

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)

researchers and veterinarians and other qualified people decide if animal experiment proposals are ethical or not. 90% of psychological research is on animals, due to their similar bodily processes and mental structures. used to test things that may be unethical in humans, but the experiments are meant to minimize distress in the animal

New cards
38

Sickle Cell Anemia

blood mutation where half of the blood cells in the person are malformed, leading to anemia and insufficient nutrient delivery (anyone with two of these genes does not survive). great for living in Africa to be immune to malaria

New cards
39

epigenetics

study of gene-environment interactions, such as how the same genotype leads to different phenotypes. people can watch out for what they consume and affect if their unwanted genotype will present itself or not (EX: go to therapy to minimize mental instability. wear sunscreen to minimize skin cancer)

New cards
40

terminal buttons

at the end of a neuron, may connect to another neuron’s dendrites

New cards
41

synapse

the space between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of another

New cards
42

resting potential

Sodium is outside the body, Potassium is inside. Chlorine and other negative proteins help to have positive net charge and cause action potential

New cards
43

depolarization, excitation

member potential becomes less negative, making the neuron more likely to fire

New cards
44

hyperpolarization, inhibition

membrane potential becomes more negative, making it less likely to fire

New cards
45

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers emitted by the neuron after action potential. may connect to nearby dendrites of other neurons or float away into the abyss. different types

New cards
46

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter. muscle action and memory

New cards
47

beta-endorphine

neurotransmitter. pain and pleasure

New cards
48

dopamine

neurotransmitter. mood, sleep, and learning

New cards
49

norepinephrine

neurotransmitter. heart, intestines, alertness

New cards
50

serotonin

neurotransmitter. mood and sleep

New cards
51

biological perspective

the idea that mental instabilities like depression are associated with imbalances in one or more neurotransmitter systems in the body

New cards
52

psychotropic

drug that treats psychiatric symptoms by restoring neurotransmitter balance

New cards
53

agonist

drug that mimics or strengthens the effects of a neurotransmitter

New cards
54

antagonist

drug that blocks or impedes normal activity of neurotransmitter

New cards
55

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

New cards
56

peripheral nervous system

every nerve excdept or the brain and spinal cord. divided into somatic and autonomic

New cards
57

somatic nervous system

part of peripheral. relays sensory and motor information to the central nervous system

New cards
58

autonomic nervous system

part of peripheral. controls glands and internal organs, and can be divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

New cards
59

sympathetic nervous system

part of autonomic. stress and fight-or-flight. allows emergency access to energy reserves and heightens sensory capacity

New cards
60

parasympathetic nervous system

routine and normal bodily function. rest-and-restore.

New cards
61

sympathetic symptoms

pupil dilation. sweat inhibition. increased heart rate. lung dilation. digestion inhibition. bladder unmoving

New cards
62

parasympathetic symptoms

pupil constriction. sweat production. slowed heart rate. lung constriction. digestion stimulation. bladder contraction

New cards
63

sulci

lines in the brain. a deep sulcus is a fissure

New cards
64

gyri

solid chunks of the brain squiggles

New cards
65

longitudinal fissure

the big line down the middle of the brain

New cards
66

lateralization

left side controls right side of body. right side controls left side of body.

New cards
67

corpus callosum

the middle portion of the brain, connecting the two halves

New cards
68

forebrain

cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, limbic system

New cards
69

cerebral cortex

higher level processing. has four lobes, frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital

New cards
70

thalamus

sensory relay

New cards
71

hypothalamus

homeostasis

New cards
72

pituitary gland

master gland of endocrine system

New cards
73

limbic system

emotional and memory circuit

New cards
74

Broca’s area

in frontal lobe. used for language

New cards
75

Phineas Gage

lost his frontal lobe. went from soft-spoken and well-mannered to acting innapropriately

New cards
76

parietal lobe

sensory and perception. has the primary somatosensory cortex, which processes sensory info like temperature, touch, and pain. it’s organized topographically (each individual section is assigned to a body part)

New cards
77

temporal lobe

hearing, memory, emotion, some language. near the temples. have the auditory cortex and Wernicke’s area for speech comprehension.

New cards
78

occipital lobe

visual processing. has the primary visual cortex, organized retinopically.

New cards
79

limbic system

amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus

New cards
80

thalamus

processes most senses except for scent

New cards
81

amygdala

experiencing emotion and tying it to memories

New cards
82

hippocampus

learning and memory, spatial awareness

New cards
83

hypothalamus

regulates homestatic processes like body temperature, appetite, and blood pressure

New cards
84

midbrain

reticular formaion, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area

New cards
85

reticular formation

regulates sleep cycle, arousal, alertness, and motor function

New cards
86

substantia nigra

produces dopamine, involved with motor

New cards
87

ventral tegmental areas (VTA)

produces dopamine, involved with mood, reward, and addiction

New cards
88

Parkinson’s Disease

when the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental areas degenerate together

New cards
89

hindbrain

medulla, pons, and cerebellum

New cards
90

medulla

automated processes like breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate

New cards
91

pons

connects the brain to spinal cord, regulates sleep

New cards
92

cerebellum

balance, coordination, movement, motor skills, and some memory processing

New cards
93

computerized tomography scan (CT)

x-rays pass through the brain multiple times to find the different densities. they are black and white ad 2D

New cards
94

positron emission tomography scan (PET)

rainbow colored. patients are injected with mildly radiocative substances and their blood flow is monitored to the differnt brain regions to find brain activity

New cards
95

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

magnetic fields used to produce a picture of the tissue being imaged in white and white, with color sometimes, more 3D

New cards
96

FMRI

an MRI but over a longer course of time

New cards
97

electroencelography (EEG)

records electrical activity of the brain using electrodes on the scalp. can study the precise timing of overall brain activities by tracking amplitude and frequency of brainwaves

New cards
98

thyroid

secretes thyroxine, which regulates growth, metabolism, and appetite

New cards
99

adrenal gland

secretes stress hormones

New cards
100

gonad

secretes sex hormone

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28886 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(282)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard125 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard90 terms
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard85 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 38 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard120 terms
studied byStudied by 65 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)