Animal Reproduction - Female I, II, Equine Reproduction

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two ways that animal reproduce

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Lectures 1-4 (9/5/23 - 9/14/23).

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two ways that animal reproduce

sexually, asexually.

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asexual reproduction

mitotic division, "cloning".

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what does asexual reproduction produce?

offspring that are genetically identical to each other and the parent.

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what is asexual reproduction in vertebrates called?

parthenogenesis.

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parthenogensis

female germ cells differentiate without sperm.

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what was the first successful mammal cloning?

Dolly the sheep.

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how was Dolly the sheep cloned?

nucleus transferred from adult cell to an egg whose DNA had been removed.

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true or false: clones can breed normally

true.

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how did scientistic know that Dolly's cloning was not just a coincidence or mistake?

the experiment was repeatable in other species.

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sexual reproduction

germ cells produce gametes.

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gametes

sperm and oocyte; 1/2 genetic material of each parent.

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what is the advantage of sexual reproduction?

increased genetic variation.

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why is the rat population in NYC so uncontrollable?

they have a very short gestation period, ovulate frequently, and have a large litter.

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why is it important to have high reproductive efficiency in domestic animals?

more food and profit for the producer.

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what is a negative effect of overpopulation?

resource depletion.

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estrous synchronization

using hormones to control estrous cycle. used in herd animals to line up birthing cycles.

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frozen semen

can be transported anywhere in the world, allowing an increase in genetic diversity.

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artificial insemination

Injecting semen into the uterus by artificial means.

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sex selection

benefits dairy farm in allowing many females to produce offspring, and only needing a few breeding males.

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how is sex selection done?

sperm is stained with dye. X DNA will have more florescence, Y DNA will have less fluorescence.

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in vitro fertilization

egg fertilized in petri dish.

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embryo transfer

artificially inseminated egg inserted into mother.

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what was the initial way for human pregnancy to be detected?

the rabbit test.

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rabbit test for human pregnancy

serum or urine injected into female rabbit. after 2-3, dissect rabbit ovaries to observe whether or not ovulation occurred.

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human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

chemical detectable in blood and urine during early pregnancy.

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bioassay

test using a biological model.

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immunoassay

test using antibodies.

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cow

adult female bovine.

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heifer

young female bovine that has not given birth.

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bull

intact male bovine.

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steer

castrate male bovine.

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calf

young bovine of either sex.

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doe

female goat.

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buck

male goat.

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kid

young goat of either sex.

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wether

castrate male goat or sheep.

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ewe

female sheep.

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ram/buck

intact male sheep.

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lamb

young sheep of either sex.

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sow

adult female pig.

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gilt

young female pig that has not given birth.

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boar

intact male pig.

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barrow

castrate male pig.

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pig/shoat

young pig of either sex.

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mare

adult female horse.

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filly

young female horse.

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stallion

intact adult male horse.

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gelding

castrate male horse.

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colt

young male horse.

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foal

young horse of either sex.

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bitch

female dog.

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dog

male dog.

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pup

young dog of either sex.

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queen

female cat.

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tom

male cat.

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kitten

young cat of either sex.

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theriogenology

branch of veterinary medicine that focuses strictly on animal reproduction systems.

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obstetrics

medical specialty focusing on maternity and childbirth; pre, peri, and postnatal.

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gynecology

branch of human medical science that focuses on the female reproductive system.

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Barker Hypothesis

signals can be sent to offspring during prenatal development that can affect the postnatal development and later life events.

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lactocrine

delivery of bioactive milk-borne factors into the neonatal circulation as a consequence of nursing which ca affect developing target tissues.

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mastitis

inflammation of the mammary gland.

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agalactia

poor or low milk production.

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competition (lactocrine disruption)

unequal delivery of milk in a litter.

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how can cortisol in mother's milk across lactation reflect material life history?

high levels of stress hormone can cause offspring to be more nervous and less confident, allowing them to be more careful in dangerous environments.

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microRNAs

found in exosome-like vesicles in human, cow, and pig milk.

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peritoneum

connective tissue lining the abdominal cavity.

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peritonitis

infection of the peritoneum.

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broad ligament

part of peritoneum covering the reproductive tract.

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what are the three layers of the broad ligament?

mesovarium, mesosalpinx, mesometrium.

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mesovarium

part of broad ligament that supports the ovaries.

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mesosalpinx

part of broad ligament that supports the oviduct.

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mesometrium

part of broad ligament that supports the uterus.

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what are the main functions of the broad ligament?

supports, houses reproductive organs and nerves, provides blood supply and lymph drainage.

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what are the four layers of the uterine tract?

serosa, musculares, submucosa, mucosa.

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submucosa and mucosa

encircled by layer of smooth muscle.

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mucosa

secretes fluids to lubricate tract for sperm entry.

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muscularis

muscle layer of uterus, most developed.

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serosa

outermost layer or uterine tract.

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where are the ovaries located?

at the back body wall, near the kidneys.

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ovaries

produce female gametes and sex hormones.

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female gametes

ova (eggs)

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female sex hormones produced by the ovaries

steroids (androgens, estrogens, progestins), protein (inhibit, relaxin).

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five stages of follicles in the ovaries

primordial, primary, secondary, developing astral (tertiary), antral.

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