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Study terms and definitions
two ways that animal reproduce
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mitotic division, "cloning".
what does asexual reproduction produce?
offspring that are genetically identical to each other and the parent.
what is asexual reproduction in vertebrates called?
female germ cells differentiate without sperm.
what was the first successful mammal cloning?
Dolly the sheep.
how was Dolly the sheep cloned?
nucleus transferred from adult cell to an egg whose DNA had been removed.
true or false: clones can breed normally
how did scientistic know that Dolly's cloning was not just a coincidence or mistake?
the experiment was repeatable in other species.
germ cells produce gametes.
sperm and oocyte; 1/2 genetic material of each parent.
what is the advantage of sexual reproduction?
increased genetic variation.
why is the rat population in NYC so uncontrollable?
they have a very short gestation period, ovulate frequently, and have a large litter.
why is it important to have high reproductive efficiency in domestic animals?
more food and profit for the producer.
what is a negative effect of overpopulation?
using hormones to control estrous cycle. used in herd animals to line up birthing cycles.
can be transported anywhere in the world, allowing an increase in genetic diversity.
Injecting semen into the uterus by artificial means.
benefits dairy farm in allowing many females to produce offspring, and only needing a few breeding males.
how is sex selection done?
sperm is stained with dye. X DNA will have more florescence, Y DNA will have less fluorescence.
in vitro fertilization
egg fertilized in petri dish.
artificially inseminated egg inserted into mother.
what was the initial way for human pregnancy to be detected?
the rabbit test.
rabbit test for human pregnancy
serum or urine injected into female rabbit. after 2-3, dissect rabbit ovaries to observe whether or not ovulation occurred.
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
chemical detectable in blood and urine during early pregnancy.
test using a biological model.
test using antibodies.
adult female bovine.
young female bovine that has not given birth.
intact male bovine.
castrate male bovine.
young bovine of either sex.
young goat of either sex.
castrate male goat or sheep.
intact male sheep.
young sheep of either sex.
adult female pig.
young female pig that has not given birth.
intact male pig.
castrate male pig.
young pig of either sex.
adult female horse.
young female horse.
intact adult male horse.
castrate male horse.
young male horse.
young horse of either sex.
young dog of either sex.
young cat of either sex.
branch of veterinary medicine that focuses strictly on animal reproduction systems.
medical specialty focusing on maternity and childbirth; pre, peri, and postnatal.
branch of human medical science that focuses on the female reproductive system.
signals can be sent to offspring during prenatal development that can affect the postnatal development and later life events.
delivery of bioactive milk-borne factors into the neonatal circulation as a consequence of nursing which ca affect developing target tissues.
inflammation of the mammary gland.
poor or low milk production.
competition (lactocrine disruption)
unequal delivery of milk in a litter.
how can cortisol in mother's milk across lactation reflect material life history?
high levels of stress hormone can cause offspring to be more nervous and less confident, allowing them to be more careful in dangerous environments.
found in exosome-like vesicles in human, cow, and pig milk.
connective tissue lining the abdominal cavity.
infection of the peritoneum.
part of peritoneum covering the reproductive tract.
what are the three layers of the broad ligament?
mesovarium, mesosalpinx, mesometrium.
part of broad ligament that supports the ovaries.
part of broad ligament that supports the oviduct.
part of broad ligament that supports the uterus.
what are the main functions of the broad ligament?
supports, houses reproductive organs and nerves, provides blood supply and lymph drainage.
what are the four layers of the uterine tract?
serosa, musculares, submucosa, mucosa.
submucosa and mucosa
encircled by layer of smooth muscle.
secretes fluids to lubricate tract for sperm entry.
muscle layer of uterus, most developed.
outermost layer or uterine tract.
where are the ovaries located?
at the back body wall, near the kidneys.
produce female gametes and sex hormones.
female sex hormones produced by the ovaries
steroids (androgens, estrogens, progestins), protein (inhibit, relaxin).
five stages of follicles in the ovaries
primordial, primary, secondary, developing astral (tertiary), antral.