PSYC 280 Chapter 2

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Nerves

1 / 172

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

173 Terms

1

Nerves

sensory fibres → connect to assoc. nuclei

New cards
2

Periphery

body → ex. gut, skin

New cards
3

Viscera

ex. glands, internal organs (ex. heart, lungs, gut)

New cards
4

Encephalization

worm-like animal evolves head on FRONT

New cards
5

White matter

set of myelinated axons

New cards
6

Somatosensory

touch

New cards
7

Olfactory

smell

New cards
8

Gustatory

taste

New cards
9

Horizontal plane

div's top/bottom → runs para to ground

New cards
10

Sagittal plane

div's left/right → runs from front to back

New cards
11

Midsagittal plane

EXACTLY in MIDDLE of left/right hemis

New cards
12

Coronal plane

div's front/back → runs from left to right

New cards
13

Dorsal

TOP (brain) / BACK (spinal cord / PNS)

New cards
14

Ventral

BOTTOM (brain) / FRONT (spinal cord / PNS)

New cards
15

Rostral (AKA anterior)

FRONT (brain) / TOP (spinal cord / PNS) → twds head

New cards
16

Caudal (AKA posterior)

BACK (brain) / BOTTOM (spinal cord / PNS) → twds tail

New cards
17

Medial

NEAR midline

New cards
18

Lateral

FAR from midline

New cards
19

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

nerves in body → touch & mvmnt → inc. MOST inputs/outputs to brain

New cards
20

Somatic nervous system (SNS)

body parts w/ volitional control = ability to move by thinking → need to reach nutrients/water

New cards
21

Afferent nerves

  • type of spinal nerve → part of SNS

  • input → ENTER dorsal spinal cord

  • somatosensory → feel touch / detect motion

  • can move (NOT feel) muscles below cut if severed

New cards
22

Efferent nerves

  • type of spinal nerve → part of SNS

  • output → EXIT ventral spinal cord

  • motor sys → synapse w/ muscles → allows to move muscles

  • can feel (NOT move) muscles below cut if severed

New cards
23

How do signals travel along afferent/efferent nerves?

  1. Sensory signals from afferent nerves move UP dorsal spinal cord to brain

  2. Sensory signals = processed/felt → UPDATES motor progs

  3. Motor signals from brain move DOWN ventral spinal cord to efferent nerves

  4. Motor signals EXIT to muscles

New cards
24

Reflexes

  • SMALLEST units of org of behav → exist @ spinal cord lvl

  • Learning to act/move volitionally involves coord'ing/inhibiting in pattern

  • Ex. afferent neuron connected to motor neuron in spinal cord

    • If afferent neuron feels stimulation, motor neuron sends signal to muscles to move

New cards
25

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

  • body parts w/ NO volitional control

  • Things control for viscera:

    • Sensory/motor ftns → MANY involve relay ganglia

    • Rates → ex. heart rate

  • Lungs have volitional control → so can consciously CHANGE breathing rate

    • ONLY way to affect body parts w/ NO volitional control → INDIR

      • Ex. can only INC heart rate by breathing HARD

      • b/c breathing = ONLY way SNS/ANS interxt

New cards
26

Enteric nervous system (ENS)

digestive system (AKA GI tract) → part of ANS

New cards
27

Sympathetic division

  • division of ANS

  • sympathetic chain = ganglia in chain along spinal cord → just OUTSIDE vertebrae

  • Activating/arousing

    • Twds fight/flight/freeze → senses focused on dealing w/ threat

    • Active when:

      • Aroused → ex. sexually

      • Inhaling

New cards
28

Parasympathetic division

  • division of ANS

  • vagus nerve

  • Calming

    • Twds broaden/build → ready to create / play / expand outwd

    • Active when exhaling

New cards
29

Cranial nerves

nerves in head/neck → part of SNS

New cards
30

cranial nerve nuclei

nuclei in hindbrain

New cards
31

Sensory nerves

carry info about wld that allows to sense

New cards
32

Motor nerves

carry signals from brainstem that allow to move

New cards
33

Olfactory

cranial nerve for smell

New cards
34

Optic

cranial nerve for vision

New cards
35

Oculomotor

cranial nerve for MOST eye mvmnt

New cards
36

Trochlear

cranial nerve for rotation & vert eye mvmnt

New cards
37

Trigeminal

  • cranial nerve for jaw mvmnt & face sense

  • ALL parts (jaw & above) = sensory → only ALSO motor in jaw

  • Causes migraines

New cards
38

Abducens

cranial nerve for outwd horiz eye mvmnt

New cards
39

Facial

  • cranial nerve for face mvmnt

  • Motor ABOVE jaw → so wk's w/ trigeminal

  • allows to express/detect emo → esp. muscles around eyes

New cards
40

Vestibulocochlear (AKA auditory)

cranial nerve for balance & hearing

New cards
41

Glossopharyngeal

  • cranial nerve for taste & throat mvmnt

  • Ex. swallowing → wk's w/ trigeminal (does chewing)

New cards
42

Vagus (AKA vagal complex)

cranial nerve comprising ANS parasympathetic division

New cards
43

Spinal accessory

cranial nerve for neck mvmnt

New cards
44

Hypoglossal

cranial nerve for tongue mvmnt

New cards
45

Central nervous system (CNS)

brain + spinal cord

New cards
46

Why is spinal cord thicker closer to brain?

includes MORE of axons from PNS

New cards
47

Nucleus

bundle of somas in CNS → type of bulbous struct

New cards
48

Ganglion

bundle of somas in PNS → type of bulbous struct

New cards
49

Dorsal root ganglion

1st loc. where signals from afferent neurons collected B/F moving UP spinal cord to brain

New cards
50

What is weight of brain (AKA encephalon)?

3lbs

New cards
51

Hindbrain

brainstem → contains medulla & metencephalon

New cards
52

Medulla (AKA myelencephalon)

  • Part of hindbrain

  • ANS life-support sys → above spinal cord

  • WORST area to damage → ex. stroke can affect breathing/heart rate

  • Contains:

    • Reticular activating system

    • Cranial nerve nuclei → cranial nerves enter/exit

    • OTHER nuclei

New cards
53

Reticular activating system (RAS)

  • part of medulla

  • sends arousing/activating signals UP to REST of brain

  • midpt b/w / coordinates HIGHER brain areas & body

New cards
54

Metencephalon

Part of hindbrain containing pons & cerebellum

New cards
55

Pons

  • part of metencephalon

  • bulbous part → above / continuation of brainstem

  • Made of white matter

    • Axons enter/exit cerebellum → send signals to coord motor progs from cerebellum to spinal cord

  • Contains:

    • Cranial nerve nuclei → cranial nerves enter/exit

    • OTHER nuclei → source of neurotransmitters (ex. dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine)

New cards
56

Cerebellum

  • part of metencephalon

  • behind brainstem

  • Contains 1/2 of brain's neurons → DENSELY packed b/c SMALL area

  • Stores motor progs

New cards
57

Motor programs

  • skilled/coord'd/well-prac'd/automatic mvmnts NOT req'ing conscious thinking

  • REGRESS to lvl of kid learning mvmnt if consciously think too HARD about mvmnt

  • Initiated volitionally by frontal lobe

New cards
58

Midbrain (AKA mesencephalon)

  • Contains:

    • Cranial nerve nuclei → cranial nerves enter/exit

    • OTHER nuclei → act as sensory & motor relays

New cards
59

Sensory & motor relays

integration pts b/w DIFF behav brain sys's

New cards
60

Forebrain

Contains diencephalon & telencephalon

New cards
61

What are the evolutionarily newest brain areas?

forebrain & cerebral cortex

New cards
62

Diencephalon

part of forebrain containing thalamus & hypothalamus

New cards
63

Thalamus

  • UPPER part of diencephalon

  • Sensorimotor integrator = integrates sensory perception & initiated motor progs

    • Allows to compare motor progs' EXPECTED (dev'd by brain) & ACTUAL (shown by sensory sys) outcome

      • Allows to MIN prediction error = DIFF b/w (signals about) EXPECTED/ACTUAL outcome

  • Central hub for ALL brain netwks → ALL sensory pathways pass thru to comm w/ cortex

New cards
64

Hypothalamus

  • LOWER/FRONT part of diencephalon & part of limbic sys connected to brainstem

  • Neuroendocrine integrator → interface b/w nerv & endocrine (hormone) sys's

  • Connects to pituitary gland

  • Elec stimulating causes EITHER agg/calming behav

    • 4 Fs = fighting, fleeing, feeding, mating

  • Controls/coords homeostasis / behav (ex. motivational, sexual) (drives) by integrating w/ brainstem structs

New cards
65

Pituitary gland

  • MASTER gland → releases hormones thruout body

  • creates feedbk cycle by affecting OTHER brain areas thru circulation

New cards
66

Telencephalon (AKA cerebral hemispheres)

part of forebrain containing basal ganglia, limbic sys, & cerebral cortex

New cards
67

Basal ganglia

  • Subcortical part of telencephalon

  • nuclei in brain → motor ftn (ex. tracking)

  • Inc. part of thalamus & (debated) substantia nigra

  • MINS prediction error

  • Contains:

    • Dorsal/ventral striatum

    • Internal/external globus pallidus

    • Subthalamic nucleus

    • Substantia nigra

New cards
68

Dorsal striatum (AKA striatum / caudate putamen)

  • LARGEST part of basal ganglia

  • caudate + putamen

  • Controls amount of force/vigour/motivation in mvmnt

New cards
69

Ventral striatum

  • part of basal ganglia

  • reward/reinforcement circuit → controls amount of motivation / effort used to get what want

New cards
70

Nucleus accumbens

MAIN part of ventral striatum

New cards
71

Internal & external globus pallidus

  • part of basal ganglia

  • control info flow thru basal ganglia

New cards
72

Subthalamic nucleus

  • part of basal ganglia

  • connects/coordinates basal ganglia & thalamus

New cards
73

Substantia nigra

  • part of basal ganglia in midbrain

  • Source of dopamine for striatum → somas make/send dopamine down axons to axon terminals in striatum → regulates striatum motor component

  • LOSS of neurons = neural correlate of Parkinson’s disease

New cards
74

Parkinson’s disease

tremors → neural correlate = LOSS of substantia nigra neurons → b/c NO dopamine for striatum

New cards
75

Cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop

  • neural circuit of activity where basal ganglia, thalamus, & cortex wk tog for consciousness

  • Steps → 1 cycle → REPEATS:

  1. Cortex sends signal thru striatum to basal ganglia

  2. Basal ganglia sends signal to thalamus

  3. Thalamus sends signal as feedbk to cortex

New cards
76

Feedback frequency

  • Type of rate → see things changing FASTER as continuous INSTEAD

  • Ex. flicker fusion phenomenon → see flickering light as STEADY when flickers FASTER

New cards
77

What is feedback frequency of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop?

40Hz (cycles/s) = 25ms/cycle (+/-5) → so see things changing FASTER than 20ms as continuous INSTEAD

New cards
78

Limbic system

  • MOSTLY subcortical part of telencephalon

  • Emos

  • Contains:

    • Septal nuclei

    • Amygdala

    • Hippocampus

    • Hypothalamus

    • Cingulate cortex

New cards
79

Septal nuclei

  • Medial part of limbic sys

  • pleasure & reward

New cards
80

Amygdala

  • part of limbic sys

  • emo (valence) → ex. fear conditioning

    • Inc. soc emos → ex. soc avoidance/approach/perception

  • Degraded by toxoplasmosis gondii

New cards
81

Toxoplasmosis gondii

bacterial infection → degrades amygdala → so LOSE fear ability

New cards
82

Hippocampus

  • part of limbic sys

  • mem consolidation → mems pass thru B/F stored in LTM → ALTHO does NOT store mems

  • LOSS causes anterograde amnesia

New cards
83

Anterograde amnesia

  • CANNOT form/consolidate NEW declarative mems b/c lose BOTH hippocampi → BUT:

    • Keep OLD mems

    • Can STILL learn NEW skills → b/c stored in cerebellum

New cards
84

Cingulate cortex

  • cortical part of limbic sys → medial & ABOVE corpus callosum

  • stimulus valuation, goal tracking, self-awareness

  • Parts → anterior & posterior

New cards
85

Stimulus valuation

amount that prefer thing

New cards
86

Goal tracking

check whether reached subgoals of LARGER goal → COMPLEX behav

New cards
87

Cerebral cortex (AKA cortex / neocortex)

  • Part of telencephalon

  • OUTER brain layer

  • 2mm deep, 10-20bil neurons

  • 5 lobes → EACH assoc. w/ MAIN sense → occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal, insular

  • Transition zones b/w lobes coord / assoc. w/ BOTH senses → BETTER than 1 sense

  • 6 layers → based on neuron type/struct & chara input/output

  • Local categorization → based on localizing ftns → b/c MAIN senses of EACH lobe do NOT use WHOLE lobe → primary/secondary sensory/motor cortices, association cortex

    • If based on cell type → B/F - 50 areas, NOW - 150-200 areas

  • Contains corpus callosum

New cards
88

Occipital lobe

Visual part of cortex → MOST impt sense

New cards
89

Temporal lobe

Auditory part of cortex → ALSO has OTHER ftns

New cards
90

Parietal

  • Somatosensory part of cortex → ABOVE temporal & in FRONT of occipital

  • Does spatial/temporal processing → ex. determine space's layout by touch

  • Contains postcentral gyrus

New cards
91

Postcentral gyrus

  • MOST anterior part of parietal lobe BESIDE frontal lobe

  • Where exp touch

  • Contains body plan for OUTSIDE of body

New cards
92

Body plan

maps which brain areas' neurons get elec stimulated when spec body part touched

New cards
93

Frontal lobe

Olfactory & executive ftn part of cortex → contains prefrontal cortex

New cards
94

Prefrontal cortex

Part of frontal cortex BEHIND motor strip

New cards
95

Insular lobe

  • Gustatory & somatosensory (ONLY for INSIDE of body) part of cortex

    • Contains body plan for INSIDE of body (ex. viscera)

  • INSIDE brain UNDER Sylvian fissure

New cards
96

Sylvian fissure

line div'ing temporal from frontal/parietal cortex

New cards
97

Gyrus

groove

New cards
98

Sulcus

valley

New cards
99

Interneurons

  • inhibit/stabilize/regulate local SHORT-dist neural circuits/comm

    • binds input & output signals across layers so ALL layers send SAME signal to DIFF areas

New cards
100

Columns

SMALL ftn'al units / sections of cortex

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 754 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(14)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1395 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard119 terms
studied byStudied by 42 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard136 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard101 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 131 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard242 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)