exam 4 clcv102

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Central Nervous System (CNS)

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263 Terms

1

Central Nervous System (CNS)

brain and spinal cord

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2

peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

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3

Neurons

Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.

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4

Synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

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5

Synaptic Cleft

The narrow gap that separates the presynaptic neuron from the postsynaptic cell.

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6

Myelin

a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses

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7

Cerebell/o

cerebellum

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8

cerebr/o

cerebrum

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9

encephal/o

brain

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10

medull/o

medulla oblongata

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11

mening/o

meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)

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12

myel/o

spinal cord, bone marrow

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13

neur/o

nerve

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14

pont/o

pons

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15

thalam/o

thalamus

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16

scler/o

hardening

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17

tom/o

to cut

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18

vascul/o

blood vessel

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19

meningocele

protrusion of the meninges

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20

-malacia

softening

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21

Four sections of the brain

cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem

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22

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

record of the electrical activity of the brain

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23

encephalalgia

brain pain

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24

-esthesia

sensation

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25

meninges

three layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrapped

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26

pia mater

thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges

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27

arachnoid mater

weblike middle layer of the three meninges

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28

dura mater

thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord

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29

-plegia

paralysis

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30

pons

the part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus.

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31

Alzheimer's disease

a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning

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32

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

progressive muscle atrophy caused by degeneration and scarring of neurons along the lateral columns of the spinal cord that control muscles

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33

anticonvulsant

medication to reduce excitability of neurons and to prevent uncontrolled neuron activity associated with seizures

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34

cerebral palsy

nonprogressive brain damage resulting from defect, trauma, or oxygen deprivation at time of birth

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35

cerebrospinal fluid

Fluid in the space between the meninges that acts as a shock absorber that protects the central nervous system.

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36

infarct

Area of dead tissue after a lack of blood supply

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37

computed tomography (CT)

brain-imaging method using computer-controlled X-rays of the brain

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38

hydrocephalus

accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain

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39

multiple sclerosis

myelin sheath destruction. disruptions in nerve impulse conduction

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40

myasthenia gravis

a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles

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41

Parkinson's disease

chronic disorder of the nervous system with fine tremors, muscular weakness, rigidity, and shuffling gait

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42

shingles

viral disease that affects the peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves

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43

spina bifida

congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts

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44

subdural hematoma

collection of blood under the dura mater

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45

endocrin

secrete within

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46

exocrin

secrete out of

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47

Endocrinologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands (hormone imbalances)

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48

hypersecretion

too much hormone

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49

hyposecretion

too little hormone

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50

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.

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51

parathyroid glands

small pea-like organs that regulate calcium and phosphate balance in blood, bones, and other tissues

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52

pancreas

An organs in the abdominal cavity with two roles. The first is an exocrine role: to produce digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, which are delivered to the small intestine via the pancreatic duct. The second is an endocrine role: to secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.

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53

pineal gland

secretes melatonin

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54

pituitary gland

The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.

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55

thymus gland

lymphoid organ in the mediastinum that conditions T cells to react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response

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56

thyroid gland

produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth

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57

aden/o

gland

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58

adren/o, adrenal/o

adrenal glands

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59

crin/o

to secrete

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60

oophar/oo ovari/o

ovary

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61

orchi/o, testicul/o

testes

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62

pancreat/o

pancreas

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63

Parathyroid/o

parathyroid glands

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64

pineal/o

pineal gland

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65

pituitar/o

pituitary gland; hypophysis

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66

thym/o

thymus gland

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67

thyr/o

thyroid gland

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68

acr/o

extremities

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69

ophthalm/o

eye

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70

outer adrenal cortex

manufactures hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and steroid sex hormones

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71

Inner Adrenal Cortex

marrow?

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72

Aldersterone

Made in the Adrenal Cortex, holds on to sodium and water, gets rid of potassium.

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73

cortisol

stress hormone

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74

epinephrine

adrenaline

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75

parathyroid glands

small pea-like organs that regulate calcium and phosphate balance in blood, bones, and other tissues

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76

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Regulates endocrine activity of the adrenal cortex

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77

prolactin

stimulates milk production

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78

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Hormone produced by the neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus that stimulates water reabsorption from kidney tubule cells into the blood and vasoconstriction of arterioles.

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79

Oxytocin

A hormone released by the posterior pituitary that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding.

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80

acromegaly

abnormal enlargement of the extremities

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81

Hypothyroidism

A disorder caused by a thyroid gland that is slower and less productive than normal

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82

Corticosteroids

the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex

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83

diabetes mellitus

insulin is not secreted adequately or tissues are resistant to its effects

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84

exphthalmos

abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs

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85

goiter

resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland

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86

myexedema

severe hypothyroidism. Edema of hands face and periorbital tissues

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87

Pheochromocytoma

a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine

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88

tetany

condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood caused by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone

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89

thyrotoxicosis

condition caused by the exposure of body tissue to excessive levels of thyroid hormone

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90

opthamology

diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders

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91

conjunctiva

Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball

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92

lacrimal glands

The glands that produce fluids to keep the eye moist; also called tear glands.

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93

aque/o

water

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94

belphar/o

eyelid

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95

choroid/o

choroid layer

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96

conjunctiv/o

conjunctiva

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97

core/o, pupill/o

pupil

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98

corne/o, kerat/o

cornea

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99

cycl/o

ciliary body or muscle of the eye

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100

dacry/o, lacrim/o

tear, tearing, crying

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