PSYCH 2 EXAMND

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1

Exhaustion

the body's energy reserves become depleted, leading to illness and possibly death

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2

Health psychology

the branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behavior.

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3

Psychophysiological illnesses:

"mind-body" illness any stress-related physicial illness. (hypertension, headaches, etc.)

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Stress

a negative emotional state occurring in response to events that are perceived as taxing or exceeding a person's resources or ability to cope

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Stress Appraisal

how you see or appraise the stress or present situation

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Appraisal model

experience of stress is determined in part by our subjective evolution of phenomenon as well as our resources for coping

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Stressor

events we see as threatening or challenging

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Important thing about stress

Stress is more the result of how we appraise the stressor and less from the event themselves.

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Traumatic events

events are events or situations that are negative, severe and far beyond our normal expectations for everyday life or life events

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10

Accourding to the health psychologist Shelly Taylor

the "tend and befriend" response is a phenomenon when those around you quickly come to your aid whether stranger or friend during traumatic events.

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11

Walter Cannon

confirmed that the response to stress is a mind/body experience and results in a chan of internal physical reactions

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Cannon observed that....

stressors trigger an outpouring of the stress hormones and is part of the sympathetic nervous system's response

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13

Cannon calls the response to these changes fight or flight where levels of stress involve both the ___________________ and the _____________________

sympathetic nervous system, endocrine system

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14

Catecholamines are...

fight-or-flight stress hormones like adrenaline and noradrenaline, released when the sympathetic nervous system activates the endocrine system.

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15

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS):

the body's' adaptive response to stress

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16

_______________ extended Cannon's research on stress

Hans Selye

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17

3 stages of (GAS)

1. Alarm
2. Resistance
3. Exhaustion

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18

Alarm Reaction

sympathetic nervous system is activated, heart rate zooms, etc. Now ready to fight the challange

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19

Resistance

blood pressure, temp and breathing remain high and hormones flow. If stress continues, it can deplete the body's reserves during phase 3

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20

stress hormones

supress the disease fighting lymphoctyes and impair immune system functioning

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21

Chronic stress

triggers the secretion of corticosteroids, which influence immune system functioning

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22

Psychoneuroimmunology

the interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous, and endocrine system functions, and the immune system

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23

_________ is an emotion that is closely linked to stress related illnesses esp. heart attacks.

Anger

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24

_____________ levels are positively correlated to heart disease

Hostility

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25

Studies show that daily ___________ effect people's immune systems

Moods

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26

____________ strongly effect ___________________, particularly those with _________________________(high in urgency, hostility and competitiveness).

stressor, cardiovascular health, type A personalities

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27

problem-focused coping:

attempting to alleviate stress directly, by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor

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28

Emotion-focused strategy

managing the emotional impact of the situation

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29

Coping

alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive or behavioral methods. The way in which we try to change circumstances or our interpretation to make them less stressful

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30

Personal Control:

whether we learn to see ourselves as controlling or controlled by our environment

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31

External locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces determine their fate.

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32

Optimistic

(external, unstable, specific)

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33

Passimistic

(internal, stable, global)

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34

Internal locus of control

the perception that, to a great extent, one controls their own fate.

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35

Perceived control

perception or belief that control exists
- more likely to use problem-solving coping if perceived control exists

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36

Social support

resources provided by other people in times of need, including emotional, tangible, and informational support

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37

Resilience

the ability to cope with stress and adversity, to adapt to negative or unforeseen circumstances, and to rebound after negative experiences.

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38

Personality

an individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behavior

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39

The psychoanalytic theory

Freud, first theory of personality. Includes ideas about an unconscious region of the mind, psychosexual stages of development, and defense mechanisms for holding anxiety at bay

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40

Unconsnscious

according to Freud is a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoguhts, wishes, feelings, and memories.

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41

3 levels of awareness of Freud?

1. Conscious
2. Preconscious
3. Unconscious

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42

Psychoanalysis:

the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

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43

Freud's theory of personality and the associated treatment techniques is known as _________________?

Psychoanalysis

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44

Free Association

in psychoanalysis, method of assessing the unconscious by asking patients to spontaneously report mental images, thoughts, and feelings as they come to mind

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45

Dreams

the "royal road to the unconscious"

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46

Freud proposed 3 interacting systems that make up the personality: _________, ___________, _____________

id, ego, and superego

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47

Id:

the unconscious constantly striving to satisfy basic drives and operates on the pleasure principle and demands immediate gratification

*what u are born with, pleasure principle, id doesnt wanna wait, Ex. baby crying for survival, you want what you want when you want it, no impulse control

*immediate gratification, in the moment

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48

Ego

operates on the reality principle, seels to graatify the id's impulse in realistic ways. It's the "executive" part of personality

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49

Superego

The voice of our conscience focuses on how one ought to behave. It strives for perfection and produces feelings of pride and guilt.

- strives for perfection

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50

Psychosexual stages:

the childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus o distinct erogenous zones

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51

oral(#)

0-18m

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52

Anal(#)

18-36m

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53

Phallicv(#)

3-6 yrs

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54

Latency(#)

6-puberty

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55

Genital

puberty on

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56

Stages

1. Oral
2.Anal
3. Phallic
4.Latency
5. Genital

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57

Oral

focus is on oral stimulation (mouth)

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58

Anal

focus is on potty training and control

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Phallic

focus is on the genitals

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60

Latency

sexual urges are repressed, and child prefers same sex friends

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61

Genitals

sexual urges that remain for the rest of one's life

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62

Oedipus Complex

During phallic stage, Freud believed boys seek genitals stimulation and develop both unconscious sexual desires for their mother and jealousy and hatred for their father whom they consider a rival

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63

Identification:

the process of incorporating their parent's value into developing superego

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64

Fixiation

lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies
Ex- abrupt early weaning can result in an orally fiixated adult

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65

Ego defense mechanisms

tactics to reduce, avoid, or redirect anxiety by distorting reality

-not healthy

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66

Repression

banish anxiety-arousing thoughts and feelings from consciousness

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67

Regression

when faced with anxiety, to retreat to a more infantile stage of development

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68

Reaction Formation

the ego unconsciously makes unacceptable impulses look like their opposites

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69

Projection

disguise their own threating impulses by attributing them to others

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70

Rationalization

offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.

-making excuses
-
he hit me because he grew up in a rough environment

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71

Displacement

shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person

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72

Denial

refusal to acknowledge disturbing aspects of reality

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73

Undoing

trying to take back or make up for a behavior or impulse that was hurtful to someone. Replaying and reimagining them.

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74

Intellectualization

avoidance of feelings by overly focusing on the intellectual aspects of an issue to avoid emotional reactions.

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75

Alfred Aldler and Karen Horney: believed that _______________________?

social, not sexual tensions are crucial for personality formation

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76

Adler

(inferiority complex)

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77

Adler (inferiority complex)

believed that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority and can be done in a healthy way or an unhealthy way.

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78

The healthy person uses _______________ as a motive for productivity and overcoming obstacles.

inferiority,

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79

The unhealthy way is to strive to overcome inferiorities at other's expense or one's own.

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80

Karen Horney emphasizes the importance of _____________________ in _________________.

human relationships, personality development

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81

__________________ emphasizes the importance of human relationships in personality development.

Karen Horney

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82

Rather than overcoming an inferiority issue, Horney focused on the need to overcome _________________________

feelings of low self-worth

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83

Both Horney and Adler agreed that ____________________ contributed significantly to faulty ________________________.

faculty parenting, personality development

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84

Carl Jung:

less emphasis on scoial factors, agreed with Freud re: the unconscious, but believed it contains more then repressed thoughts and feelings

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85

Collective unconscious

images derived from our species' universal experiences (inheritied experiences). Reflects human evolutionary history and is common to all people.

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86

Ultimately, Jung believed 3 levels of consciousness existL

1. conscious
2. unconscious
3. collective unconscious.

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87

In direct contrast to Freud's pessimistic view of people, the _____________________ saw people saw people as being innately good and naturally strive to fulfill his or her unique potential.

humanistic psychologists,

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88

Two pioneers?

Maslow and Rogers

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89

Maslow's heirchy of needsL

self actualization, the desire to fulfilling our potential.

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90

The humanistic perspective focuses on the way "healthy" people operate and strive for ______________________ and _______________________

self-determination, self-realization.

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91

Malsow's Herichy of Needs

5. Self-actualization
4. Esteem
3. Belongingness and Love
2. Safety
1. Physiological
Later, Self-transcendence was added at the end of Maslow's career

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92

Carl Rogers:

known for the Person-Centered perspective, contended that the most basic human motive is the actualizing tendency: the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism

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93

According to ______________, all other human motives (biological or social) are ______________.

Rogers, secondary

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94

Genuine

be true to who you are

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95

Acceptance

(unconditional positive regard), total acceptance toward others and ourselves

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96

Empathy:

to understand what someone is feeling without experiencing it first-hand.

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97

Rogers agreed with Maslow regarding the ultimate goal of self-actualization, however, believed one needs 3 conditions to promote it: To be genuine, accepting, and empathetic

1. genuine
2. accepting
3. empathetic

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98

Unconditional Positive regard:

refers to the sense of being unconditionally loved and valued, even if you don't confirm to the standards and expectations of others.

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99

Rogers believed that healthy ____________________ is the result of being unconditionally valued and loved as a person. (discipline without undermining the child's sense of self-worth)

personality development,

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100

Conditional positive regard:

the sens that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others, conditional love or acceptance

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