Ap Psch Exam

studied byStudied by 3 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Psychology

1 / 491

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

492 Terms

1

Psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

New cards
2

Behavior

Anything an organism does, and can be observed and recorded

New cards
3

Mental processes

Internal, subjective experiences, we perceive from behavior

New cards
4

Socrates and Plato

Mind is separable from the body, and the mind continued after death, which results in knowledge being born with us

New cards
5

Aristotle

The soul is not separable from the body, and knowledge is not born within us, knowledge comes from experiences

New cards
6

John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

The mind at birth is a blank slate, experiences, write on that slate, which is learning

New cards
7

Wilhelm Wundt

Created the first psychological lab in Germany

New cards
8

Edward Bradford Titchener

Used introspection, looking inward, to explore the structure of the mind and taught people how to report self reflection

New cards
9

William James

Introduced functionalism, wrote the first American psychology textbook

New cards
10

Functionalism

The function of parts of the body related to the brain

New cards
11

Mary Calkins

Would become the first female president of the American psychological association

New cards
12

Margaret Floy, Washburn

First woman to get a Psychology PhD

New cards
13

Charles Darwin

His theories of adaptation and evolution were used for years by psychologists, focused on the traits that allowed an organism to survive

New cards
14

Sigmund Freud

Develop the perspective of psychoanalysis and believed that all of our psychological issues came from earlier repressed memories

New cards
15

Biological/neuroscience

The body and brain are the dominant influences of behavior and thinking

New cards
16

Evolutionary

How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes

New cards
17

Humanistic

Environmental influences, especially love and acceptance, determine what we become in life

New cards
18

Psychodynamic

How behavior comes from unconscious drives and conflicts

New cards
19

Behavioral

How we learn observable responses

New cards
20

Cognitive

How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

New cards
21

Sociocultural

How behavior and thinking very across situation and cultures

New cards
22

Biological psychologist

Explores the links between the brain and the mind

New cards
23

Developmental psychologist

Study the changes in our abilities along different stages in our life

New cards
24

Industrial/organizational psychologist

Studies and advise on behavior in the workplace and they use applied research which attempt to solve practical problems

New cards
25

Psychiatrist

Are medical doctors who are licensed to prescribe drugs, and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders

New cards
26

Hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it, "i knew it all along"

New cards
27

Hypothesis

Allows the researcher to give a prediction that they can test

New cards
28

Replicating an experiment is important to validity

If the experiment can be replicated, buy another researcher in the results of the experiment will have more validity

New cards
29

Case study

Psychologist studying one individual in great depth

New cards
30

Laboratory study

Takes place in a laboratory and is an artificial setting, which may not reflect the real world

New cards
31

Field study

Allows for a more natural setting for experiments and it's tough to control all variables

New cards
32

Survey method

Asking questions to a selected group of people

New cards
33

Double blind study

Neither the researcher or subject knows who the control group is, and it keeps experimenter bias out of the experiment

New cards
34

The placebo effect

Fake treatments

New cards
35

Independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

New cards
36

Dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

New cards
37

Correlation

How well factors predict each other, and is usually shown on scatter plot

New cards
38

illusory correlation

perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists

New cards
39

Mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

New cards
40

Mean

average

New cards
41

Median

the middle score in a distribution

New cards
42

Standard deviation

Scores are packed together, or widely dispersed

New cards
43

Ethical principles

Subjects in a decline participation at any time in a study, subjects and experimenters, must be honest, obtain information must remain confidential, and the experimenter must make sure that the experiment is safe

New cards
44

Animal experimentation

Is used with animals that are similar to our behaviors

New cards
45

Phrenology (Franz Gall)

Claimed bumps on the skull, can reveal our mental abilities and our character traits

New cards
46

Nervous system

Uses chemicals and electrical process that convey info and consists of neurons

New cards
47

glial cells

Insulate and perform clean up tasks

New cards
48

Dendrites

Receive electrical chemical information and transmit it to the cell body

New cards
49

The cell body

Except the incoming messages and will send it to the axon

New cards
50

Axon

How long to Blake structure that carries information away from the cell body

New cards
51

Myelin sheath

Fatty coating around the axons that insulate neural impulses

New cards
52

Terminal buttons

Located near the end of the axon and release chemicals called Neurotransmitters

New cards
53

Neuronal communication

includes electrical conduction (action potential) along the axon and chemical transmission via neurotransmitter release at the synapse

New cards
54

Electro chemical

Production, release, and reuptake of neurotransmitters that increase electrical activity

New cards
55

All or nothing response

a neuron's reaction of either firing or not firing

New cards
56

threshold of excitation

level of charge in the membrane that causes the neuron to become active

New cards
57

Firing of the neuron

The first bit of the axon is depolarized and electrical impulses travel down to the axon

New cards
58

Nerotransmitters

chemicals that are stored in sacs in the axon terminals

New cards
59

excitatory message

Causes the next neuron to fire

New cards
60

Inhibitory message

Prevents the next neuron firing

New cards
61

Reuptake

process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles

New cards
62

Agonists

chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell,

New cards
63

Antagonists

drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter

New cards
64

Central nervous system

Consists of the spinal cord and the brain

New cards
65

Spinal cord

A neuron highway that connects the peripheral nervous system to the brain and controls reflexes

New cards
66

peripheral nervous system

Links the central nervous system, with the body, sense, receptors, muscles, and glands. Consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous system.

New cards
67

Somatic nervous system

Enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles

New cards
68

Autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.

New cards
69

Sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations (speed heartbeat, raising blood pressure, etc)

New cards
70

Parasympathetic system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

New cards
71

Sensory neurons

Send information from the body tissue and sensory organs inward to the central nervous system

New cards
72

Motor neurons

Carry information from the central nervous system to the bodies tissue

New cards
73

Interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

New cards
74

Endocrine system

Consists of glands that control many of the body's activities by producing hormones.

New cards
75

Adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.

New cards
76

Pituitary gland

endocrine gland at the base of the brain, releases, hormones, that influence the growth and influences the release of hormones from other glands

New cards
77

EEG

electroencephalogram, records, the waves of electrical activity across the brain

New cards
78

PET scan

Measures the glucose that is used by neurons and shows that consumption

New cards
79

MRI

Create images of the soft tissues in the brain to see the structures

New cards
80

Brain plasticity

the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

New cards
81

Split brain

The corpus collosum must be severed

New cards
82

Left hemisphere

Controls our thinking, and decision making

New cards
83

Right hemisphere

Undertake a simple, request, perceives objects, and make quick decisions

New cards
84

Brainstem

Responsible for all survival functions

New cards
85

Medulla

Controls, heartbeat and breathing

New cards
86

Reticular formation

Plays a role in controlling arousal and relays information to the brain

New cards
87

Thalamus

the brain's sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

New cards
88

Cerebellum

Processes sensory input and coordinates movement and balance

New cards
89

Limbic system

Consists of the hippocampus, amygdala's, and hypothalamus

New cards
90

Hippocampus

Processing memories

New cards
91

Amygalda

part of the brain that plays a role in emotional learning and with fear

New cards
92

Hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature

New cards
93

Cerebral cortex

The outer layer of the brain and is the control and information processing center

New cards
94

Frontal lobe

Involved in speaking and muscle movements, and in making plans and judgments

New cards
95

parietal lobe

Receives sensory input for touch and body position

New cards
96

occipital lobe

visual processing

New cards
97

Temporal lobe

Hearing

New cards
98

Motor cortex

Voluntary movement

New cards
99

Brokas area

Controls speech by directing the muscles involved in speech

New cards
100

Wernicke's area

Controls, language, comprehension, and expression

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 754 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(14)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1395 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard119 terms
studied byStudied by 42 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard136 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard101 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 131 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard242 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)