APWORLD period 2

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Indulgence

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132 Terms

1

Indulgence

A document whose purchase was said to grant the bearer the forgiveness of sins

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2

Mercantilism

A European economic policy of the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries that held that there was a limited amount of wealth available, and that each country must adopt policies to obtain as much wealth as possible for itself; key to the attainment of wealth was the acquisition of colonies

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3

Scientific Revolution

A European intellectual movement in the seventeenth century that established the basis for modern science

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4

Parliamentary Monarchy

A government with a king or queen whose power is limited by the power of parliament

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5

Northwest Passage

A passage through the North America continent that was sought early by explorers to North America as a route to trade with the east

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6

Enlightenment

A philosophical movement in eighteenth Europe that was based on reason and the concept that education and training could improve human society. Emphasis on human accomplishment.

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7

Viceroy System

King appoints person to rule in far lands or colony as a representive

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8

Encomienda

A practice in the spanish colonies that granted land and the labor of Native Americans on that land to European colonists

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9

Devshirme

A practice of the Ottoman empire to take Christian boys from their home communities to serve as Janissaries

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10

Protestant Reformation

A religious movement began by Martin Luther in 1517 that attempted to reform the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church; it resulted in the formation of new Christian denominations

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11

Caravel

A small, easy steerable ship used by the Spanish and Portuguese in their explorations

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12

Empirical Research

A way of gaining knowledge by means of direct observation or experience

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13

Factor

An agent with trade privileges in Early Russia

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14

Laissez-Faire economics

An economic concept that holds that the government shouldn't interfere with or regulate business and industries

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15

Capitalism

An economic system based on private ownership and opportunity for profit-making=

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16

Northern Renaissance

An extension of the Italian Renaissance to the nations of Northern Europe; the Northern Renaissance took on a more religious nature than the Italian Renaissance

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17

Philosophes

French Enlightenment social thinkers

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18

Mulato

In the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, a person of mixed african and European descent

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19

Repartamiento

In the Spanish colonies, a replacement for the encomienda system that limited the number of working hours for laborers and provided fair wages

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20

Mestizos

In the Spanish colonies, persons of mixed European and native descent

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21

Peninsulares

In the Spanish colonies, those who were born in Europe

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22

Janissaries

Members of the Ottoman army, who were slaves, who were taken from Christian lands

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23

Jesuits

Members of the society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic missionary

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24

Manchus

People from northeastern Asia who founded China's Qing Dynasty

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25

Natural Laws

Principles that govern nature

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26

Absolute Monarchy

Rule by a king or queen whose power is not limited by a constitution

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27

Mughal Dynasty

Rulers who controlled most of India in the 16th century and 17th century

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28

Cossacks

Russians who conquered and settled Siberia in the 16th-17th century

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29

Sovereignty

Self-rule

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30

Treaty or Tordesillas

The 1494 treaty in which the pope divided unexpected territories between Spain and Portugal

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31

Divine Rights

The belief of absolute rulers that their right to govern is granted by God

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32

Predestination

The belief of Protestant reformer John Calvin that God has chosen some people for heaven and others for hell

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33

Glorious Revolution

The bloodiest overthrow English King James I and the placement of William and Mary on English throne

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34

Hagia Sophia

The church in Constantinople that was converted to a mosque after the Ottoman Empire

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35

Deism

The concept of God to the scientific revolution; that God was believed to have set the world in motion and then allowed it to operate by natural laws

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36

Heliocentric Revolution

The concept that the sun is the center of the solar system

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37

Triangular Trade

The 18th century trade network between Europe, Africa and the Americas

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38

Colombian Exchange

The exchange of food, crops, livestock and disease between Eastern and Western Europe after the voyage of Columbus

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39

Commercial Revolution

The expansion of trade and commerce in Europe in the 16th and 17th century

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40

Tokugawa Shogunate

The federal rulers of Japan who moved the capital to Edo. They ruled from 1603 to 1868

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41

Purdah

The Hindu custom of secluding women

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42

Middle passage

The portion of the trans-Atlantic trade that involved the passage of Africans from Africa to the Americas

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43

Excommunication

The practice of the Roman Catholic Church and other Christian churches of prohibiting participation in the sacraments to those who do not comply with church teachings or practices

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44

Reconquista

The recapture of Muslim-held land in Spain by Christian forces. It was completed in 1492

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45

Catholic Reformation

The religious reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that occurred in response to the Protestant Reformation. It reaffirmed Catholic beliefs and promoted education

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46

Dutch Learning

Western learning and information embraced by Japan

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47

Estates General

France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)

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48

Ninety Five Thesis

Written by Martin Luther, explained his woes and problems with the Catholic Church

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49

Early Modern Period

the time period of 1450 - 1750 (it is called this because events occurring in this time directly shape regional/political units of todays world)

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50

Thirty Years War

War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia

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51

Treaty of Westphalia

Ended the 30 years war, allowing principalities and cities to choose their own religion, creating a patchwork of religious affiliations through England.

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52

English Civil War

This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished.

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53

Scholasticism

Scholars based their inquiry on the principles established by the church, which sometimes resulted in clases between science and religion

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54

Brahe & Kepler

developed a more complex theory from Copernicus in 1610

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55

Galileo

used the first telescope during the Renaissance in 1609, where he made many large discoveries in the solar system, until he was put under house arrest for spreading conflicting ideas

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56

Humanism

interest in the capabilities and accomplishments of individuals

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57

Patrons

supporters of the arts, with payment and such, they found talented artists, often when they were young

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58

Medici

was a powerful family of Florence in the mid to late 1400s that sponsored artists as a rich merchant family

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59

Erasmus

a humanist Dutch priest that published the first edition of the New Testament in Greek in 1516

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60

Johan Gutenberg

a German goldsmith and printer, who created the printing press, in 1454

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61

Nicolo Machiavelli

a Renaissance writer who wrote, "The Prince" which was a famous philosophical view of the ideal political leader in the 16th century, in Italian city states

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62

Indulgences

The Catholic Church's grants of salvation for money in the 1500s, and was part of the growing corruption of the church.

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63

John Calvin

A protestant who established a variation of his beliefs on a stern and vengeful God.

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64

Anglican Church

A form of Christianity established by Henry VIII that was not decided on the grounds of religious belief, but because the pope would not allow him to divorce his wife.

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65

Nicholas Copernicus

a Polish monk who based tables on those by Nasir Al-Din, an Islamic scholar, to correct inaccurate calendars.

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66

Land-based Powers

A shift in land based powers where governments controlled lands by building armies, bureaucracies, road, canals, and walls that unified and protected

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67

Sea-based Powers

Sea people built their power by controlling water routes, developing technology to cross the seas, and gaining wealth from trade and land claims.

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68

Renaissance

A heightened intellectual and artistic advance from about 1450s, that changed Europe forever

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69

Adam Smith

He analyzed the natural law of supply and demand that governed economies in his classic book, "The Wealth of Nations"

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70

John Locke

sought to understand the impact of the "laws of nature" on human liberties

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71

Thomas Hobbes

English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)

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72

Montesquieu

admired the British Parliament that had successfully gained power at the expense of the king, who also advocated a three-branch government with three branches that shared political power

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73

Voltaire

wrote witty criticisms of the French monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church. He believed both institutions to be despotic and intolerant, limiting freedoms

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74

Rosseau

the most radical of the common philosophers, he proclaimed in his social context that "Man is born free: and everywhere he is in chains". Since society had "Corrupted" human nature, he advocated a return to nature in a small, co-op community

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75

Holy Roman Empire

a place/time where religion remained very important, and religious issues continued to fragment, and strong kings emerged in the 16th century

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76

Reconquest

the retaking of land in Iberia by Spain and Portugal in a religious crusade to expand. This conquest advanced in waves over several centuries.

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77

Joint-stock Companies

these companies organized commercial ventures on a large scale by allowing investors to buy and sell shares. The new capitalist system largely replaced the old guild system of the middle ages.

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78

Vasco da Gama

set out to find the tip of Africa and connect it to the Indian Ocean, and discovered the fastest and safest ways to travel to Portugal

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79

Christopher Columbus

A Genoese mariner who convinced Isabella and Ferdinand to sponsor a voyage across the Atlantic after he was turned down by the Genoese and Portugal. He believed he could reach east Asia by sailing West.

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80

Magellan

had a ship that was first to circumnavigate the glove, even though Magellan himself died in the phillipines

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81

Conquistadors

went to search for gold and convert the natives to Christianity in the interior of Mexico

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82

Cortes

sought to find the Aztec capital, and took over the Aztec land - with help of Amerindians, disease, and technology

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83

Ethnocentrism

the term that describes the tendency of human beings to view their own culture as superior

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84

Creoles

composed of those born in the new world; a quickly growing class

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85

Castas

a middle-level status between Europeans at the top; and Amerindians and blacks at the bottom

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86

Dutch East India Company

a joint stock company that specialized in the spice and luxury trade of the East Indies and quickly gained control of Dutch Trading in the Pacific

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87

Indentured Servitude

a system which was usually ethnically the same as a free settler, but he or she was bound by an "indenture" (contract) to work for a person for four to seven years, in exchange for payment of the new world voyage

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88

Columbian exchange

the global diffusion of crops, other plants, human beings, animals, and distance that took place after the European exploring voyages of the New World

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89

Plantocracy

a small number of rich men owns most of the slaves and land, as well as had all the power

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90

Maroons

runaway slaves in the Carribean

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91

African Diaspora

The spreading of Africans to many other parts of the world, especially the Americas. This is one of the most important demographic changes during 1450 - 1750

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92

Gunpowder Empires

an age of time where almost all powerful states used guns to build control/attack (included Russia, Ming and Qing, Japan, the Ottoman Empire, the Safavid and the Mughal empire)

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93

Suleiman the Magnificent

ruled the Ottomans as the empire reached the height of its power. The Ottomans controlled much of the water traffic between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean sea

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94

Safavid Empire

an empire that grew from a turkish nomadic group, that were Shi'ite muslims

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95

Taj Mahal

a building of beauty built as a tomb for Mumtaz Mahal's wife.

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96

Mughal Empire

an empire that that was a mixture of Mongol and Turkish peoples from Central Asia, which dominated India until the early 1700s

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97

Kabuki

a form of drama that consisted of several acts and separate skits with singing, dancing, and elaborate staging. (Actors became well known starts)

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98

Boyars

The nobility of the Russia feudal based economic system. They also had military responsibilities to overlords, including the tsar

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99

Peter the Great

The tsar of Russia in 1682 to 1724, who was most responsible for transforming Russia into a great world power. He understood how things worked globally, and expanded water ports

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100

St. Petersburg

The "Window to the West" established by Peter the Great, which was a capital built on the shoes of the newly accessed Baltic Sea (a port for the new navy + allowed closer access to western countries)

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