ELHS Orchestra/Strings Exam Terms

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10th

East Lyme High School orchestra exam terms, for Mrs. Carlson's class.

103 Terms

1

grave

slow, solemn, heavy (slow tempo)

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2

largo

very slow (slow tempo)

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3

larghetto

somewhat faster than largo, but still slow (slow tempo)

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4

lento

slow (slow tempo)

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5

adagio

moderately slow (slow tempo)

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6

andante

"walking" pace (moderate tempo)

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7

andantino

somewhat faster than andante; moderate (moderate tempo)

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8

moderato

moderate speed (moderate tempo)

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9

allegretto

moderately fast, somewhat slower than allegro (fast tempo)

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10

allegro

fast (fast tempo)

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11

vivace

lively, quick (fast tempo)

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12

presto

very fast (fast tempo)

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13

prestissimo

extremely fast (fast tempo)

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14

accelerando (accel.)

accelerating, gradually becoming faster

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15

stringendo (string.)

tightening, gradually becoming faster

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16

ritardando (rit.)/rallentando (rall.)

gradually becoming slower

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17

allargando (allarg.)

broadening, becoming slower

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18

calando/morendo/perdendosi

dying away; becoming slower/softer

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19

a tempo

"at tempo" - returning to speed obtained before a ritardando or accelerando

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20

tempo primo (tempo I)

returning to the original tempo of a piece; often seen in a piece's recapitulation

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21

meno mosso

less motion; slower

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22

più mosso

more motion; faster

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23

(alla) marcia

march (tempo); music that suggests marching

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24

waltz/valse

dance in triple meter at moderate speed; emphasis placed on first beat

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25

molto

very; a lot

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26

ma non troppo

(but) not too much

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27

rubato

"robbed time"; playing a passage freely, speeding up or slowing down as the performer sees fit

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28

l'istesso tempo

same tempo; beat remains constant through metrical changes

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29

common time (4/4)

4 quarter-note beats per measure; names for note lengths (whole, half, quarter, eighth, ...) come from what fraction of a common-time measure they take up

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30

cut time (2/2)

2 half-note beats per measure

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31

tremolo

"trembling" effect typically produced on strings by rapidly repeating a note

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32

attacca

proceed without pause (usually between movements of a larger work)

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33

piano (p)

soft

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34

forte (f)

loud

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35

mezzo piano (mp)

moderately soft

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36

mezzo forte (mf)

moderately loud

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37

pianissimo (pp)

very soft

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38

fortissimo (ff)

very loud

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39

pianississimo (ppp)

extremely soft

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40

fortississimo (fff)

extremely loud

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41

subito (s)

sudden

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42

forzando (fz)

forced, accented

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43

subito forzando/sforzando (sfz)

sudden, forced accent

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44

subito piano (sp)

suddenly soft

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45

subito forte (sf)

suddenly loud

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46

fortepiano (fp)

forte immediately followed by piano

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47

pianoforte (pf)

piano immediately followed by forte; could also refer to the full name for a piano

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48

subito fortepiano (sfp)

sudden forte followed immediately by a piano

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49

subito pianoforte (spf)

sudden piano followed immediately by a forte

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50

crescendo (cresc.)

gradually getting louder

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51

decrescendo/diminuendo (decresc./dim.)

gradually getting softer

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52

crescendo molto (cresc. molto)

(gradually) getting a lot louder

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53

diminuendo molto (dim. molto)

(gradually) getting a lot softer

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54

crescendo poco a poco (cresc. poco a poco)

getting louder, little by little

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55

diminuendo poco a poco (dim. poco a poco)

getting softer, little by little

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56

animato

animated

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57

agitato

agitated

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58

appassionato

passionately

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59

brillante

brilliant

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60

cantabile

in a singing manner

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61

con grazia

with grace

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62

con brio

with brilliance

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63

con amore

with love

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64

con anima

with feeling/soul

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65

con fuoco

with fire, energy

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66

con forza

with force

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67

con spirito/spiritoso

with spirit

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68

col legno

"with the wood"; striking the string with the wood of the bow

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69

delicato

delicate

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70

dolce

sweetly

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71

dolcissimo

very sweetly

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72

doloroso

grieving, sorrowful

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73

energico

energetically

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74

furioso

furiously, wildly

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75

giocoso

comical, playful

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76

grandioso

grand

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77

legato

smooth, connected

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78

leggiero

lightly, delicately

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79

maestoso

majestic

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80

pesante

heavy

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81

pomposo

pompous, with dignity

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82

scherzando

playfully

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83

sostenuto

sustained, held

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84

serioso

seriously

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85

tranquillo

tranquil

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86

vigoroso

vigorously, strong

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87

staccato

short and detached

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88

accent

louder or with harder attack

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89

marcato

much louder, with much stronger attack, marked, or with emphasis

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90

tenuto (ten.)

held, sustained for full value; "leaning in" to note

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91

fermata

indefinitely sustained note; usually appears over all parts at same metrical location in a piece to show a halt in tempo; pause over a note or rest, holding it longer than its indicated value

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92

breath mark

taking a breath; pause usually does not affect overall tempo

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93

caesura

"railroad tracks"; indicates brief, silent pause during which time is not counted; time resumes when conductor begins counting again

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94

tie

connects two or more notes of the same pitch, forming one longer note

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95

slur

smoothly connects two or more notes of different pitches (no breath for vocalists)

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96

spiccato

very short staccato accent; bouncing the bow (not always notated as shown in picture)

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97

repeat sign

encloses a passage that is to be repeated; if no left repeat is present, return to beginning of piece or last double bar line

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98

1st and 2nd endings (volta brackets; occasionally 3rd endings are written)

indicates different endings for a repeat

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99

da capo (D.C.)

from the beginning

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100

dal segno (D.S.)

from the sign

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