AP HUG Unit 1 Vocab

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Formal/Uniform Region

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113 Terms

1

Formal/Uniform Region

An area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics

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2

Administrative Region

A politically determined region with exact borders and a governing purpose

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3

Functional Region

An area organized around a node or focal point

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4

Perceptual Region

A region defined by popular feelings and images rather than by objective data

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5

Von Thunen Model

An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive , with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less.

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6

Bid-rent theory

The closer you are to the city's "center," the more likely and higher the cost.

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7

Neolithic Revolution (1st)

People began living in small villages and groups, rather than nomadic livestyles.

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8

Second Agricultural Revolution

Tools and equipment, methods of soil preparation, fertilizing using manure.

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9

Seed Drill

machine that sowed seeds in rows and covered up the seeds in rows

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10

Cereal Grain

A grass yielding grain for food. ex. oats, wheat, rye, or barley

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11

herbicide/pesticide/fertilizer

Concoctions; one kills plants, one bugs, the other improves plant growth.

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12

Green Revolution (3rd)

Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.

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13

Commercial agriculture

Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.

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14

Economic development

The improvement of living standards by economic growth.

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15

Human Development Index (HDI)

Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy

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16

more developed country (MDC)

A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.

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17

less developed country (LDC)

A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development

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18

gross domestic product (GDP)

A measurement of the total goods and services produced within a country.

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19

Gross national income (GNI)

The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country

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20

Purchasing power parity (PPP)

The amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country

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21

Brandt line

divides the more developed north from the less developed south

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22

literacy rate

The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.

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23

primary sector

extracting raw materials (take)

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24

secondary sector

converting raw materials to products (make)

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25

tertiary sector

providing a service or selling a product (sell, service)

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26

quaternary sector

research and development (research)

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27

quinary sector

the top decision makers in an economy (pimps)

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28

Industrial Revolution

A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.

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29

Hotelling's Law/Model

the idea that businesses try and create their products as similarly as possible (ice cream carts on a beach, 2 fast foods across the street)

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30

city

An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.

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31

urbanized area

a city and it's surrounding suburbs (e.g. dallas and the surrounding dallas area)

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32

centralized business district (CBD)

the original core of the economy (similar to the nucleus of the cell) people build up not out here (e.g. downtown dallas)

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33

Concentric Zone Model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.

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34

sector model

A model or urban land use that places the central business district in the middle with wedge-shaped sectors radiating outwards from the center along transportation corridors.

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35

Multiple Nuclei Model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.

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36

galactic city/peripheral model

Model that consists of multiple centers which have decentralized cities and more emphasis is placed on edge cities

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37

edge cities

A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.

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38

Central Place Theory

Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.

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39

market area

The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services. (theorized that these are in the shape of hexagons)

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40

hinterland

places, usually with lower populations, with less economic opportunity.

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41

conurbation

city between 1-5 million in population

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42

urban hierarchy

A ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions.

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43

site

the physical characteristics of a place; what is found there, and what makes that place what it is.

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44

situation

the outside factors of a place, which affect it but are not specifically something that makes it what it is.

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45

distribution

the arrangement of a feature in space

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46

density

population; how many people live in a certain area (___ per square km or mile)

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47

pattern

a pattern

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48

space

The physical gap or interval between two objects

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49

distance decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

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50

sense of place

how a person feels about a particular place that is important to them

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51

demography

The scientific study of population characteristics.

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52

diffusion

the spread of an idea or characteristic over time

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53

population pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.

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54

cohort

a group of people sharing a common characteristic, such as from a given time period

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55

crude birth rate (CBR)

the number of births per 1,000 individuals per year

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56

crude death rate (CDR)

the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year

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57

rate of natural increase (RNI/NIR)

cbr-cdr = natural increase rate (must be a percentage)

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58

life expectancy

A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live

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59

infant mortality rate (IMR)

the number of deaths of infants under 1 year, per 1,000 people

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60

population composition

Structure of population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education

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61

dependency ratio

the number of people who cannot work (15 or younger and 65 and over), over the number of people who can (15-64)

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62

demographic equation

The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.

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63

census

counts the population of a place. In america, it is taken every 10 years and

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64

immigration

Migration to a location

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65

emigration

Migration from a location to another

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66

spatial interaction

the flow of information, products, and human beings from one location to another

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67

push factor

Why someone would leave a place

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68

pull factor

Why someone would migrate to a place

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69

friction of distance

principle that states that distance usually requires some amount of effort, money, and/or energy to overcome.

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70

gravity model

The shorter the distance between two objects and the greater mass of either/both objects, the greater the gravitational pull between the two objects

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71

voluntary migration

migrant has the choice to migrate

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72

forced migration

migrant does not have the choice, if they refuse they can face death or severe punishments

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73

international migration

permanent migration to another country

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74

internal migration

permanent migration within a country

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75

remittance

Money immigrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash

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76

reverse remittance

Money, goods, etc that the family of immigrant in the home country send to the migrant

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77

expansion diffusion

The spread of cultural traits throughout a population/area to new users/believers/areas

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78

hierarchical diffusion

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79

contagious diffusion

The spread of cultural traits outward from the hearth through contact among people

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80

stimulus diffusion

People in a culture adopt an underlying idea or process from another culture, but modify it because they reject one or more cultural associated traits

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81

relocation diffusion

Spread of cultural traits by people who migrate and carry their cultural traits with them

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82

creole language

A pidgin language that has become a group’s first language

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83

cultural landscape

The visible reflection of a region’s culture in its built environment

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84

cultural region

human geographic factors that determine how various areas are similar based on cultural factors such as language, religion, political institutions, standard of living, and development.

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85

cultural trait

a single identifiable material or non-material element within a culture, and is conceivable as an object in itself.

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86

culture

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87

cultural complex

The group of traits that define a particular culture

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88

custom

Traditional and widely accepted way of behaving or doing something that is particular to a specific society, place, or time

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89

denomination

A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body

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90

dialect

A regional variant of a language

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91

isogloss

A boundary between linguistic regions

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92

pidgin language

A simplified grammar and limited vocabulary that develops as a language for communication between speakers of different languages

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93

ethnicity

identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth

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94

race

A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics

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95

indigenous community

communities that live within, or are attached to, geographically distinct traditional habitats or ancestral territories, and who identify themselves as being part of a distinct cultural group

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96

Carl Sauer

argued that all regions of the Earth were impacted by human behavior and had been altered by human interaction,

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97

toponym

the study of geographical names, or place names, of a particular region

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98

folk culture

Also called local culture. Cultural traditions that are done at a local level and which are derived from longstanding cultural practices.

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99

popular culture

a set of beliefs, values, actions, objects, or goods and practices that are popular at any given time and space in society

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100

state

A politically bound area controlled by an established government that has authority over its internal affairs and foreign policy

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