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116 Terms

1

Hijab

________: a term that can refer either to the practice of dressing modestly or to a specific type of covering.

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2

Ibn Khaldun

________ (1332- 1406): well known for historical accounts and is widely acknowledged as a founder of the fields of historiography and sociology.

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3

Neolithic revolution

________- the discovery of planting provided lots more food than hunting and gathering.

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4

Artisans

________: skilled craft workers produced products under the supervision of the imperial government; manufactured porcelain and silk that reached consumers through expanding trade networks, especially by sea.

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5

Song Dynasty

________: replaced Tang in 960 and ruled for three centuries; ruled smaller region than Tang and arts flourished.

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6

Al Andalus

________: Islamic state in Spain that became a center of learning.

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7

Neo Confucianism

________: evolved in China between 770 and 840; combined Daoism and Buddhism; emphasized ethics rather than God or nature.

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8

Merchants

________: did not require physical strength or endurance; simply exchanged goods without growing or making anything new; low status reflected Confucian respect for hard work and creating value.

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9

Samurai

________ were born into their roles as protectors and daimyo were born into lived of privilege.

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10

Hinduism

________- ordered the early Indian society thru the Caste system.

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11

Judaism

Ex: ________ spread through constant persecution, and invasion and resulted in lots of moving for Jews.

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12

Minamoto

________ installed a shogun, or military ruler, to reign in 1192.

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13

Filial Piety

________: the duty of family members to subordinate their desires to those of the male head of the family and to the ruler; emphasis on respect for ones elders helped the Song maintain their rule in China.

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14

Poetry

Reading and ________: development of paper and printing expanded the availability of books; peasants couldnt read but Chinas privileged classes had increased access to literature; Confucian scholars were major producers of literature; emphasis of schooling created generations of well- rounded scholar- bureaucrats.

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15

Discrimination

________: against non- Arabs in the non- Arab areas of Islamic expansion, but rarely open persecution; faded in the 9th century.

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16

Chinese

________ used the compass in maritime navigation, and they redesigned their ships to carry more cargo; ability to print paper navigation charts made seafaring possible in open waters, out of sight of land, and sailors become less reliant on the sky for direction.

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17

Neo Confucian teachings

________ supported the government- shaped social classes and the family system.

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18

Grand Canal

________: an inexpensive and efficient internal waterway transportation system that extended over 30, 000 miles (enabled China during the Song Dynasty to become the most populous trading area in the world)

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19

Sciences and Technolgies

Arts, ________: Learned Muslim officials, helped establish formal educational estitutes to.

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20

China

While ________ was ruled by an emperor who oversaw a large civilian bureaucracy, Japan had a powerful landowning family (Minamoto clan) take charge.

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21

Maya

________: agriculture, writing, astronomical charts, and sacrifice.

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22

Pastoralists

________: People that continued to be nomadic, and eat by hunter- gathering.

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23

Proto Industrialization

________: a set of economic changes in which people in rural areas made more goods than they could sell; relied more on home- based or community- based production using simple equipment.

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24

Ibn Rushd

________: famous scholar that wrote influential works on law, secular philosophy, and the natural sciences.

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25

Quran

The ________ emphasizes that all people are equal before Allah, but some discrimination still existed.

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26

Tang

During the ________ and Song eras, China enjoyed affluence, a well- educated populace, and extensive contact with foreign nations; due to this, intellectual pursuits (technology, literature, and visual arts) thrived.

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27

Heian Period

________: 794- 1185; emulated Chinese traditions in politics, art, and literature.

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28

Prince

________ promoted Buddhism and Confucianism as well as traditional religion.

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29

Nasir al Din al Tusi

________ (1201- 1274): contributed to astronomy, law, logic, ethics, mathematics, philosophy, and medicine; built an advanced observatory which produced accurate astronomical charts; laid groundwork for trigonometry; medical advances and hospital care improved; doctors and pharmacists then had to take examinations for licenses that would allow them to practice.

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30

Abbasid Caliphate

________ was led by Arabs and Persians, and the later Islamic States were shaped by Turkic people who descended from people in Central Asia.

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31

Umayyads

________: ruled only briefly in Middle East, kept power longer in Spain.

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32

Baghdad

________: many trade routes connected there; however, as trade patterns slowly shifted to routes farther north, they lost its traditional place at the center of trade and lost its wealth and population; could not afford to keep its canals repaired, farmers could not provide enough food for the population, and infrastructure fell into decay.

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33

Aishah al Bauniyyah

‘ ________ (1460- 1507): Sufi poet and mystic; most profile female Muslim writer before the 20th century; most works describe her journey toward mystic illumination.

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34

Daoism Taught

________ to look away from people and to nature.Shamanism had spiritual power.

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35

Sufi Missionaries Sufi

________ is a branch of Islam, that put more emotion into the faith of Islam.

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36

Naval technology

________ allowed China to control trade in South China Sea.

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37

Scholar Gentry

________: soon outnumbered the aristocracy, which comprised of landowners who inherited their wealth; were educated in Confucian philosophy and became the most influential social class in China.

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38

Muhammad

________ raised the status of women in several ways (insisted on dowries made to secure brides were to be paid to the future wife, forbade killing newborn girls)

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39

Bushido

________: code that stressed frugality, and loyalty, the martial arts, and honor unto death.

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40

Peasants

________: lower rungs of Chinese society who worked for wealthy landowners, often to pay off debts, and the urban poor; Song government provided aid to the poor and established public hospitals where people could receive free care.

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41

death of Muhammad

After ________ in 632, Islam spread rapidly outward from Arabia- missionary religion.

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42

Gunpowder

________: Made in previous dynasties before; innovators in the Song Dynasty made the first guns; technology of making ________ and guns spread from China to all parts of Eurasia via traders on the Silk Roads.

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43

Confucianism

________ created early society through hierarchical values and the relationships of people.

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44

Korea

The landed aristocracy were more powerful in ________ than in China (________ civil service examination was not open to peasants)

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45

Japans Feudalism

________: had been a feudal society without a centralized government; landowning aristocrats (the daimyo) battled for control of land, while majority of people worked as rice farmers; very little social mobility and heredity hierarchy.

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46

Non Muslims

________ and Muslims influenced each other with philosophers, interpretations, and scientific innovations as well as knowledge transferred from India and China.

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47

Abbasids

________ allowed Christians to travel easily to and from their holy sites in and around Jerusalem, but Seljuk Turks limited the travel; so Christians organized crusaders to reopen access.

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48

Cultural Continuities

________: Islamic scholars learned from many cultures, carried on work of earlier thinkers.

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49

Imperial Bureaucracy

________: a vast organization in which appointed officials carried out the empires policies.

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50

Mansa Musa

________: The ruler of Mali, converted to Islam and went on the Hajj to Mecca the holy city.

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51

Several agricultural societies focused around rivers

Nile river valley, Yellow RV, Indus RV, Mesoamerica, and Andes Mountain Society

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52

Code of Hammurabi

societal code for hierarchy, early law and punishment for breaking laws

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53

Claim of Divinity

Like the divine right of kings, early societal leaders claimed that they were sent from God in order to rule

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54

Pastoralists

People that continued to be nomadic, and eat by hunter-gathering

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55

Led to cultural exchanges from ‘established societies, the origin of trade through nomads

Mongols

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56

Ex

Judaism spread through constant persecution, and invasion and resulted in lots of moving for Jews

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57

Closer empires

went to war, but the division of distance allowed for trade and swapping of new technologies

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58

Maya

agriculture, writing, astronomical charts, and sacrifice

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59

Song Dynasty

replaced Tang in 960 and ruled for three centuries; ruled smaller region than Tang and arts flourished

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60

Imperial Bureaucracy

a vast organization in which appointed officials carried out the empires policies

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61

Civil Service Exam

Emperor Song Taizu expanded educational opportunities to young men of the lower economic classes so they could score well on the civil service exams; score well = let them obtain a highly desired job in the bureaucracy; exams based on knowledge of Confucian texts

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62

Meritocracy

officials obtained their positions by demonstrating their merit on those exams; Chinese system allowed for more upward mobility than any other hiring system of the time

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63

Grand Canal

an inexpensive and efficient internal waterway transportation system that extended over 30,000 miles (enabled China during the Song Dynasty to become the most populous trading area in the world)

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64

Gunpowder

Made in previous dynasties before; innovators in the Song Dynasty made the first guns; technology of making gunpowder and guns spread from China to all parts of Eurasia via traders on the Silk Roads

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65

Champa Rice

a fast-ripening and drought-resistant strain of rice from the Champa Kingdom in present-day Vietnam; greatly expanded agricultural production in China

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66

Innovative methods of production contributed to agricultural success (ex

Chinese farmers put manure on the fields to enrich the soil); built irrigation systems using ditches, water wheels pumps, and terraces to increase productivity

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67

Manufacturing and Trade

industrial production soared and Chinas discovery of black coal enabled it to produce greater amounts of cast iron goods; later learned how to take the carbon out of cast iron and began to manufacture steel to make bridges, gates, and ship anchors as well as religious items (also strengthened food production)

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68

Proto-Industrialization

a set of economic changes in which people in rural areas made more goods than they could sell; relied more on home-based or community-based production using simple equipment

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69

Artisans

skilled craft workers produced products under the supervision of the imperial government;manufactured porcelain and silk that reached consumers through expanding trade networks, especially by sea

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70

Taxes

Song promoted growth of commercial economy by changing how they built public projects (started paying people to work on them increasing the amount of money in circulations, aka economic growth)

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71

Tributes

another source of income for the government; an arrangement in which other states had to pay money or provide goods to honor the Chinese emperor; cemented its economic and political power over several foreign countries and also created stability and stimulated trade for all parties involved

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72

Chinas Class Structure

urbanization represented a significant development in China, but life in rural areas grew more complex as well; bureaucratic expansion created an entirely new social class, the scholar gentry

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73

Scholar Gentry

soon outnumbered the aristocracy, which comprised of landowners who inherited their wealth; were educated in Confucian philosophy and became the most influential social class in China

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74

Three other classes ranked below the scholar gentry

farmers, artisans, and merchants

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75

Merchants

did not require physical strength or endurance; simply exchanged goods without growing or making anything new; low status reflected Confucian respect for hard work and creating value

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76

Peasants

lower rungs of Chinese society who worked for wealthy landowners, often to pay off debts, and the urban poor; Song government provided aid to the poor and established public hospitals where people could receive free care

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77

Role of Women

Confucian traditions included both respect for women and the expectation that they would defer to men; patriarchal pattern strengthened during the Tang and Song dynasties; one distinctive constraint on womens activities in China was the practice of foot binding

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78

Foot Binding

a common activity among aristocratic families during the Song Dynasty where girls had their feet wrapped so tightly that the bones did not grow naturally; bound foot signified social status, something suitors particularly desired; also restricted womens ability to move and hence to participate in the public sphere; was finally banned in 1912

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79

Paper and Printing

The Chinese invented paper as early as the 2nd century CE, but they developed a system of printing in the 7th century

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80

Woodblock Printing

first culture to use woodblock printing; in the Song era, printed booklets on how to farm efficiently were distributed throughout rice-growing regions; people could make multiple copies of art or written texts without laboriously copying each by hand

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81

Reading and Poetry

development of paper and printing expanded the availability of books; peasants couldnt read but Chinas privileged classes had increased access to literature; Confucian scholars were major producers of literature; emphasis of schooling created generations of well-rounded scholar-bureaucrats

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82

Buddhism

had come to China from India via Silk Roads; popularity became widespread during the Tang Dynasty

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83

Buddhism and Daoism

Three forms of Buddhism from India came to shape Asia, each developing a different emphasis

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84
  • Theravada Buddhism

focused on personal spiritual growth through silent meditation and self-discipline; became strongest in Southeast Asia

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85
  • Mahayana Buddhism

focused on spiritual growth for all beings and on service; became strongest in China and Korea

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86
  • Tibetan Buddhism

focused on chanting; became strongest in Tibet

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87

Four Noble Truths

stress the idea that personal suffering can be alleviated by eliminating cravings or desires and by following Buddhist precepts

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88

Zen Buddhism

Monks introduced Buddhism to the Chinese by relating its beliefs to Daoist principles until Buddhist doctrines combined with elements of Daoist traditions to create synthetic or fused faith; emphasized direct experience and meditation as opposed to formal learning based on studying scripture

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89

Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism

Tang Dynasty had a hard time with Buddhism but the Song Dynasty was somewhat more friendly towards Buddhism (did not promote the religion thought)

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90

Filial Piety

the duty of family members to subordinate their desires to those of the male head of the family and to the ruler; emphasis on respect for ones elders helped the Song maintain their rule in China

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91

Neo-Confucianism

evolved in China between 770 and 840; combined Daoism and Buddhism; emphasized ethics rather than God or nature

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92

Heian Period

794-1185; emulated Chinese traditions in politics, art, and literature

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93

Japans Feudalism

had been a feudal society without a centralized government; landowning aristocrats (the daimyo) battled for control of land, while majority of people worked as rice farmers; very little social mobility and heredity hierarchy

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94

Bushido

code that stressed frugality, and loyalty, the martial arts, and honor unto death

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95

House of Wisdom

Under Abbasid Empire, scholars traveled from far away to Baghdad to study at the renowned center of learning; Islamic community helped transfer knowledge throughout Afro-Eurasia

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96

Crusaders

groups of soldiers organized by European Christians

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97

The Mongols

came from Central Asia; conquered remaining Abbasid Empire in 1258 and ended Seljuk rule; continued west but were stopped in Egypt by the Mamluks

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98

Baghdad

many trade routes connected there; however, as trade patterns slowly shifted to routes farther north, they lost its traditional place at the center of trade and lost its wealth and population; could not afford to keep its canals repaired, farmers could not provide enough food for the population, and infrastructure fell into decay

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99

Cultural Continuities

Islamic scholars learned from many cultures, carried on work of earlier thinkers

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100

Cultural Innovations

scholars made their own achievements

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