Psy test 4

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7.1 what is memory?

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7.1 what is memory?

your archive of accumulated learning; the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.

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7.1 what does memory help you do?

recognize family members, speak your language, and find your way home. Your memory allows you to enjoy an experience and then mentally replay it to enjoy again.

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7.1 information-processing model assumes to remember something we need to do what?

encode store and retrieve

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7.1 what does encode mean

get information into your brain

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7.1 what does store mean?

to retain the information

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7.1 what does retrieve mean

later get the information back out

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7.1 who proposed we form information in these three stages We first record to-be-remembered information as a fleeting sensory memory. From there, we process information into short-term memory, where we encode it through rehearsal. Finally, information moves into long-term memory for later retrieval.

Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin

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7.1 what is sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

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7.1 what is short term memory

briefly activated memory of a few items (such as digits of a phone number while calling) that is later stored or forgotten.

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7.1 what is long term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless archive of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

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7.1 what is the working memory stage

a newer understanding of short-term memory; conscious, active processing of both (1) incoming sensory information and (2) information retrieved from long-term memory. (short term and long term combined)

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7.1 Integrating these memory inputs with your existing long-term memory requires what?

focused attention

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7.1 what does working memory enter through?

your vision

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7.2 how does our mind operate on two tracks

On one track, information skips the Atkinson-Shiffrin stages and barges directly into storage, without our awareness. These implicit (nondeclarative) memories form without our conscious effort. Implicit memories, formed through automatic processing, bypass the conscious encoding track. On the second track, we process our explicit (declarative) memories of the facts and experiences we can consciously know and "declare." We encode many explicit memories through conscious, effortful processing. The Atkinson-Shiffrin model helps us understand how this memory track operates

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7.2 what are implicit memories

retention of learned skills, or classically conditioned associations, without conscious awareness.

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7.2 what are explicit memories

retention of facts and personal events you can consciously retrieve. (Also called declarative memory.)

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7.2 what is automatic processing?

unconscious encoding of everyday information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of familiar or well-learned information, such as sounds, smells, and word meanings.

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7.2 what is effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

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7.2 what are ways you automatically process information

space. While studying, if you are reading visually, you often encode the place on the page or screen where certain material appears. Later, you may visualize its location when you want to retrieve the information. time. While you are going about your day, your brain is working behind the scenes, jotting down the sequence of your day's events. Later, if you realize you've left your phone somewhere, you can call up that sequence and retrace your steps. frequency. Your behind-the-scenes mind also keeps track of how often things have happened, thus enabling you to realize, "This is the third time I've run into her today!"

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7.2 what is parallel processing

processing many aspects of a stimulus or problem at the same time.

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7.2 what is the first stage of forming an explicit memory

sensory memory A memory-to-be enters by way of the senses, feeding very brief images, echoes of sounds, and strong scents into our working memory.

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7.2 what is an iconic memory

This fleeting sensory memory of the flashed letters tenths of a second, our eyes retain a picture-image memory of a scene.

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7.2 what is echoic memory

fleeting sensory memory of sounds

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7.2 who proposed that we can store about seven bits of information (give or take two) in this middle stage.

George Miller

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7.2 what age has greater working memory

young adults

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7.2 We can boost our ability to form new explicit memories by using specific effortful processing strategies, such as what

chunking and mnemonics.

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7.2 what is "chunking"

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

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7.2 what are "mnemonics"

memory aids, especially techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

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7.2 Effortful processing requires__________________________ and _, and chunking and mnemonics help us form ________________________ and _________ memories

closer attention and effort meaningful and accessible

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7.2 what is the spacing effect

produces better long-term recall (Cepeda et al., 2006; Soderstrom et al., 2016). Cramming (massed practice)can produce speedy short-term learning and an inflated feeling of confidence

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7.2 who observed those who learn quickly also forget quickly

Hermann Ebbinghaus

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7.2 who said "Hundreds of studies have shown that distributed practice leads to more durable learning."

Henry Roediger

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7.2 what is the testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

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7.2 What information do people most easily remember?

personally relevant information

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7.3 Explicit, conscious memories are either ____________ or _________________

sematic( facts and general knowledge or episodic (events)

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7.3 explicit memories of these facts and episodes are laid down where

the hippocampus

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7.3 Your _____________________ acts as a loading dock where your brain registers and temporarily stores aspects of an event — its smell, feel, sound, and location

hippocampus

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7.3 what is memory consolidation

the neural storage of a long-term memory.

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7.3 what plays an important role in forming and storing memories created by classical conditioning

your cerebellum

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7.2 what helps Your memories of physical skills — walking, cooking, dressing — are also implicit memories.

basal ganglia

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7.3 what is infaitle amnesia

our conscious memory of our first four years

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7.3 how does the amygdala play a role in memories

Excitement or stress (perhaps when you performed music or played a sport in front of a crowd) triggers your glands to produce stress hormones. By making more glucose energy available to fuel brain activity, stress hormones signal the brain that something important is happening. Stress hormones also focus memory.

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7.3 what are flashbulb memories

form when we create mental snapshots of exciting or shocking events, such as our first kiss or our whereabouts when learning of a loved one's death

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7.3 Dramatic experiences remain clear in our memory in part because...

we rehearse them (Hirst & Phelps, 2016). We think about them and describe them to others. Memories of personally important experiences also endure

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7.3 what us long term potential

an increase in a nerve cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. LTP is a neural basis for learning and memory.

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7.3 memory processing image (answer image)

image

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7.4 what us recall

retrieving information out of storage and into your conscious awareness.

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7.4 what is recognition

identifying items you previously learned. Example: a multiple-choice question.

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7.4 what is relearning

learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time.

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7.4 what are retrieval cues

any stimulus (event, feeling, place, and so on) linked to a specific memory.

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7.4 what is priming

happens without your conscious awareness, it can influence your attitudes and your behavior.

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7.4 what is the encoding specify principle

the idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it.

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7.4 how do our moods influence what we remember

Being happy primes sweet memories. Being angry or depressed primes sour ones. Say you're having a terrible day. You argued with a friend, made a big mistake at work, and got a poor grade on your midterm. Your bad mood may trigger other unhappy memories

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7.4 mood congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with your current good or bad mood.

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7.4 what is serial position effect

explains why you may have large holes in your memory of a list of recent events. our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

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7.5 who Performed in front of a crowd, he could memorize streams of nonsensical or random information, such as long sections from Dante's Inferno in Italian — despite not knowing Italian (Johnson, 2017). But his junk heap of memories dominated his conscious mind (Luria, 1968). He had difficulty thinking abstractly — generalizing, organizing, evaluating.

Solomon Shereshevsky

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7.5 what is anterograde amnesia

an inability to form new memories.

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7.5 what is retrograde amnesia

you cannot remeber the past

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7.5 what can affect encoding ability

age

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7.5 what is memory trace

lasting physical change in the brain as a memory forms.

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7.5 what is proactive interference

the forward-acting disruptive effect of older learning on the recall of new information.

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7.5 what is retroactive interference

the backward-acting disruptive effect of newer learning on the recall of old information.

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7.5 what is positive transfer

Old and new information do not always compete. Previously learned information (Latin) often facilitates our learning of new information (French).

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7.5 what does repress mean

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness the thoughts, feelings, and memories that arouse anxiety.`

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7.6 what is reconsolidation

a process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again.

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7.6 what is the misinformation effect

occurs when a memory has been corrupted by misleading information.

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7.6 what is the weakest part of your memeory

the source

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7.6 what is source amnesia

faulty memory for how, when, or where information was learned or imagined.

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7.6 what is deja vu (I've seen this before!! lol)

that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.

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7.6 where does the familiar feeling come from

temporal lobe

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7.6 what part of the brain consciously remembers detials

hippocampus and frontal lobe processing

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7.6 improving memory techniques

Rehearse repeatedly. To master material, remember the spacing effect — use distributed (spaced) practice. Make the material meaningful. Space it. Rehearse it. And also personalize it. You can build a network of retrieval cues by forming as many associations as possible. Apply concepts to your own life; Activate retrieval cues. Remember the importance of context-dependent and state-dependent memory. Mentally re-create the situation in which your original learning occurred. Use mnemonic devices. Make up a story that uses vivid images of the concepts. Chunkinformation for easier retrieval. Minimize proactive and retroactive interference. Study before sleeping. Sleep more. During sleep, the brain reorganizes and consolidates information for long-term memory. Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to find out what you don't yet know. The testing effect is real, and it is powerful. Don't become overconfident because you can recognize information.

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8.1 cognition focus

how humans and other species think, know, remember, and communicate

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8.1 what is metacognition

cognition about our cognition; keeping track of and evaluating our mental processes

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8.1 metacognition

cognition about our cognition; keeping track of and evaluating our mental processes.

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8.1 what are concepts

mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.

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8.1 how do we form concepts

by mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, or people Called prototype

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8.1 what are algoritims

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees you will solve a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier — but also more error-prone — use of heuristics.

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8.1 what are heuristics

a simple thinking strategy — a mental shortcut — that often allows you to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than an algorithm.

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8.1 what is insight

an abrupt, true-seeming, and often satisfying solution

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8.1 what is conformation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. for example, leads us to seek evidence for our ideas more eagerly than we seek evidence against them

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8.1 what is a fixation

an inability to come to a fresh perspective.

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8.1 what is intuition

our fast, automatic, unreasoned feelings and thoughts.

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8.1 what is representativeness heuristic

To judge the likelihood of something by intuitively comparing it to particular prototypes

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8.1 what is availability heuristic

perates when we evaluate how common an event is, based on its mental availability.

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8.1 overconfidence underlines the common what

planning fallacy

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8.1 what is planning fallacy

our overestimating how quickly tasks or projects will be completed

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8.1 what is belief preserverance

our tendency to stick to our existing beliefs, even when faced with evidence that disproves them.

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8.1 how do you avoid belief perseverance

consider the opposite

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8.1 The way we ______________ or present, an issue can be a powerful tool of persuasion, for good or for ill.

frame

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8.1 what does frame mean

the way an issue is posed

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8.1 psychologists and economists have shown how the framing of options can nudge people toward beneficial decisions like what

healthier eating saving for retirement making moral decisons becoming an organ donor

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8.1 how do smart thinkers use intution

Intuition is recognition born of experience. It is implicit (unconscious) knowledge — what we've learned and recorded in our brains but can't fully explain Intuition is usually adaptive. Our fast and frugal heuristics let us intuitively rely on learned associations that surface as gut feelings, right or wrong: Intuition is huge. Unconscious automatic influences constantly affect our judgments

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8.1 what is the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

creativity

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8.1 what is convergent thinking

an ability to provide a single correct answer.

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8.1 what do creativity test require

divergent thinking

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8.1 what is divergent thinking

the ability to consider many different options and to think in novel ways.

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8.1 what are 5 things included in creativity

Expertise — a solid knowledge base — furnishes the ideas, images, and phrases we use as mental building blocks. Imaginative thinking skills give us the ability to see things in novel ways, to recognize patterns, and to make connections. A venturesome personality seeks new experiences, tolerates gray areas, takes risks, and stays focused despite obstacles. Intrinsic motivation (as explained in Chapter 9) arises internally rather than from external rewards or pressures A creative environment sparks, supports, and refines creative ideas. Colleagues are an important part of creative environments.

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8.1 research-based tips to boost your own creative process

Develop your expertise. What do you care about most? What do you enjoy doing? Follow your passion by broadening your knowledge base and becoming an expert at your special interest. Allow time for ideas to hatch. Think hard on a problem, but then set it aside and come back to it later. During periods of inattention ("sleeping on a problem"), automatic processing can help associations to form (Zhong et al., 2008). Set aside time for your mind to roam freely. Creativity springs from "defocused attention" (Simonton, 2012a, b). So detach from attention-grabbing TV shows, social media, and video gaming. Jog, go for a long walk, or meditate. Serenity seeds spontaneity. "Time alone is ... the font of creativity" says playwright and musician Lin-Manuel Miranda (Hainey, 2016). Experience other cultures and ways of thinking. Viewing life from a different perspective sometimes sets the creative juices flowing. Students who spend time in other cultures learn how to blend new norms with those of their home culture, which increases creativity (Godart et al., 2015; Lu et al., 2018). Even getting out of your neighborhood or embracing intercultural friendships fosters flexible thinking (Kim et al., 2013; Ritter et al., 2012).

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8.2 def of language

When we speak, write, or sign words to communicate

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