Forensic Exam

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Trace Evidence Analysis

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Trace Evidence Analysis

created when objects make contact. The material is often transferred by heat or induced by contact friction. The importance of trace evidence in criminal investigations was shown by Dr. Edmond Locard in the early 20th century

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Forensic Toxicology

the analysis of biological samples for the presence of toxins, including drugs. The report can provide key information as to the type of substances present in an individual and if the amount of those substances is consistent with a therapeutic dosage or is above a harmful level

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Forensic Psychology

involves generating scientific knowledge and clinical techniques to help answer legal questions arising in criminal, civil, contractual, or other judicial cases or scenarios

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Forensic Podiatry

Human remains identification: helped identify deceased persons by comparing discovered body parts related to the foot to medical records.

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Civil Litigation

analyze fraudulent medical or injury claims

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Forensic Pathology

focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem examination is performed by a medical examiner or forensic pathologist, usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions.

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Forensic Odontology

the application of dental evidence to both criminal and civil law. This can include identifying sexual abuse; personal identification of the deceased, especially in cases of mass disaster or when facial recognition is inconclusive; or in determining ages of unidentified victims

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Forensic Linguistics

the application of linguistic knowledge, methods, and insights to the forensic context of law language, crime investigation, that, the judicial procedure.

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Forensic Geology

Generalist forensic science technicians, sometimes called criminalists or crime scene investigators, collect evidence at the scene of a crime and perform scientific and technical analysis in laboratories or offices

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Forensic Entomology

work with medical examiners, coroners, local and state police agencies and federal agencies, using their knowledge and skills to ascertain valuable information to be used in their investigations

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Forensic Engineering

specializes in the analysis of structural and mechanical engineering failures and develops methods for resolving them. They use engineering principles to evaluate the problem, determine why it happened and plan recommendations for repair and recovery

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Forensic DNA Analysis

The specialization in forensic DNA analysis focuses on biological evidence left at crime scenes

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Forensic Botany

aid law enforcement officials in finding and analyzing plant material at the scene of the crime. A systematic botanist has the training and skill necessary to identify evidence and ascertain facts that are not obvious to a non

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Forensic Archeology

involves the application of archaeological survey, excavation, and recovery techniques to death scene investigations, particularly those scenes of medico

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Digital Forensics

a branch of forensic science encompassing the recovery, investigation, examination and analysis of material found in digital devices often in relation to mobile devices and computer crime

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Forensic Ballistics

involves the examination of evidence from firearms that may have been used in a crime. when a bullet is fired from a gun, the gun leaves microscopic marks on the bullet and cartridge case.

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Frye Standard

a test used in United States courts to determine the admissibility of scientific evidence

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Rule 702

  1. the expert by qualified

2. the testimony address a subject matter on which the fact finder can be assisted by an expert

  1. the testimony be reliable

  2. the testimony "fit" the facts of the case

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Daubert Ruling

the standard used by a trial judge to assess whether an expert witness's scientific testimony is based on scientifically valid reasoning which can properly be applied to the facts at issue

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Locard's Exchange Principle

holds that the perpetrator of a crime will bring something into the crime scene and leave with something from it, and that both can be be used as forensic evidence. Dr. Edmond Locard was a pioneer in forensic science who became known as the Sherlock Holmes of Lyon, France

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History of the Crime Lab

In 1910 Professor Edmund Locard (1877

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Services Provided by the Crime Lab (Essential vs. Optional)

in crime laboratories, scientists analyze evidence collected from crime scenes, suspects and victims. They may analyze anything from crime scenes, suspects and victims. They may analyze anything from DNA or fingerprints to human remains or suspicious substances

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Crime Triangle

identifies three factors that create a criminal offense. Desire of a criminal to commit a crime; Target of the criminal's desire; and the Opportunity for the crime to be committed. You can break up the _______ by not giving the criminal the Opportunity

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Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's contribution to forensic science

author of the Sherlock Homes stories, has long been credited as an influence to forensic science due to his character's use of methods such as fingerprints, serology, ciphers, trace evidence, and footprints long before they were commonly used by actual police forces

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Means

whether an individual is capable of performing

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Motives

whether an individual wants to perform

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Opportunity

whether the individual has the chance to perform

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Direct Evidence

proof of a fact, such as testimony by a witness about what that witness personally saw or heard or did

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Circumstantial Evidence

indirect evidence, it is proof of one or more facts from which one can find another fact

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Individual Evidence

has a common origin

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Class evidence

shares common characteristics

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Who founded the body farm in Tennessee

Bill Bass

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Which Type of forensic testing has a high rate of false positives

The Kastle

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What type of forensic evidence is almost universally accepted

Fingerprint. Fingerprint evidence can be very important to all types of investigations. There are three types of fingerprints that forensic investigators look for: latent, patent, and plastic

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1st degree

Planned out and intentional

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2nd degree

not planned out and intentional

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voluntary

not planned out and intent to hurt but not to kill

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involuntary

not planned out and not intent to hurt or kill

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Rigor Mortis

one of the most well

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What causes Rigor Mortis

a postmortem change resulting in the stiffening of the body muscles due to chemical changes in their myofibrils. Rigor mortis helps in estimating the time since death as well to ascertain if the body had been moved after death.

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2 hours

rigor starts in eyelids and lower jaw

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2

4 hours

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4

6 hours

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6

8 hours

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8

10 hours

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10

12 hours

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12

15 hours

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15

18 hours

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