Exam #1

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195 Terms

1

nature

hereditary

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hereditary

Passing of traits from parents to offspring via genes; influence our physical development and psychological development

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Nature examples

temperament, IQ, skin color/eye color, height, weight, reflexes, basic needs

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nurture

environment

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environment

all the experiences, objects and events to which we are exposed throughout our entire lifetime

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Nurture examples

environment, learning, experience, cultural influences

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Biological Perspective

the psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior; all nature

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Behaviourist perspective

Personality is a result of learned behaviour patterns based on a person's environment; all nurture

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deprivation

the loss of withholding of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, love

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enrichment

attempt to ensure that an environment (particularly that of a child) has intellectual, perceptual stimulation and that it is complex and original; allows for investigation

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11

Wild Child

A child raised in the wild or neglected and grossly underdeveloped

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wild child example

Genie

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13

sensitive period

A period of time during development when a person (or animal) is more responsive ('sensitive') to certain types of environmental experiences or learning; rapidly aquire a particular skill or characteristic

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can you still learn after the sensitive period has closed

yes but the learning process is less efficient

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sensitive period example

learning a second language

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16

critical period

a period in time in which a person (or animal) has heightened sensitivity to external stimuli that is compulsory for the development of a particular skill

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can you still learn after the critical period has closed

no, if the appropriate experience does not occur during its critical period it can permanently and irreversibly affect development; identifiable start and end times

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critical period examples

certain areas of the visual cortex are only capable of synapse formation during the early stages of development. Once the critical period has elapsed, the individual will have some visual impairment

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Epigenetics

the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

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20

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events (internal thoughts); subjects learns to associate two unrelated stimuli with each other

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Ivan Pavlov

discovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell

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neutral stimulus

a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response (computer restarting)

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neutral response

stimulus that normally doesn't evoke a response

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unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response (altoid)

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unconditioned response

a reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus (dry mouth)

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conditioned stimulus

a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place (computer and altoid)

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conditioned response

a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus (when hears computer, has dry mouth)

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B.F. Skinner

Behaviorist that developed the theory of operant conditioning by training pigeons and rats

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29

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher (external, observable); subject learns behaviour by associating it with consequences

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positive punishment

adding something to decrease behaviour

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positive punishment example

spanking a child

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negative punishment

subtracting something to decrease behaviour

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negative punishment example

taking away a car for too many parking tickets

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positive reinforcement

adding something to increase behaviour

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positive reinforcement example

student earns A in psych, mother pays him 10$ (good stimulus) goal behavior- increase good grades

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negative reinforcement

subtracting something to increase behaviour

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negative reinforcement example

He has a headache (undesirable), takes an aspirin which takes away the headache (bad stimulus) goal behavior- begin to feel better

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Reinforcement

any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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operant conditioning model

antecedent -> behaviour -> consequence (ABC)

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antecedent

what happened before (wants alcohol)

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behaviour

what happens (drinks alcohol)

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consequence

what happens after (hangover)

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petrol gauge almost on empty -> fill car with petrol -> avoid running out of petrol (whats the effect on future behaviour)

negative reinforcement

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44

Behaviorism

the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only

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45

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

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Albert Bandura

researcher famous for work in observational or social learning including the famous Bobo doll experiment

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what do we learn from according to the social learning theory

observing the experience of others

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48

Bandura's experiments indicate that

both classical and operant conditioning can occur vicariously through observing others

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49

vicarious

experienced in the imagination through the feelings or actions of another person

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social learning theory model

Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation-reinforcement

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Attention (social learning theory)

Learners must focus on the skills or behaviors they should observe

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Retention (social learning theory)

Learners must not forget the observed skills or behaviors

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reproduction (social learning theory)

depending on physical capabilities, learner converts the mental representation into action

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Motivation-reinforcement (social learning theory)

learner must be motivated to reproduce. reinforcement influences motivation to perform the observed behaviour

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Types of Reinforcement

external, vicarious, self

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external reinforcement

Comparable to learning by consequences

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vicarious reinforcement

indirectly observing someone else receive a reward or punishment

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self-reinforcement

praising or rewarding oneself for having made a particular response (such as completing a school assignment)

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social cognitive theory

Bandura's theory of personality that emphasizes both cognition and learning as sources of individual differences in personality

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self-efficacy

An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.

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Bobo doll experiment

nursery school students observed an adult play aggressively (yelling & hitting) with an inflatable clown (Bobo); when children were later allowed to play with the Bobo, those children who witnesses the Bobo doll performed the same aggressive actions and improvised new ways of playing aggressively

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62

attachment theory

the idea that early attachments with parents and other caregivers can shape relationships for a person's whole life

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John Bowlby

Attachment theory. Identified the characteristics of a child's attachment to his/her caregiver and the phases that a child experiences when separated from the caregiver.

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attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

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surrogate

Substitute, person who acts for another (noun); acting as a replacement (adj)

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Harry Harlow

Studied attachment in monkeys with artificial mothers

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Harry Harlow criticisms

ethical concerns, limited generalizability to humans, lack of ecological validity, potential gender bias, and challenges in replication. Despite these criticisms, his work has contributed to our understanding of attachment theory.

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impact of Harlow's research?

key changes in how orphanages, adoption agencies, social services groups and child care providers approached the care of children

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Ainsworth

theorist that studied types of attachment by use of the strange situation test

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70

Erik Erikson

Known for his 8-stage theory of Psychosocial Development; focused on personality development

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psychosocial crisis

dilemma concerning an individual's relations to other people; personality is shaped by how we deal with/resolve the crisis

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Trust v. Mistrust

0-18 months; hope

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trust vs mistrust crisis

when an infant determines whether they can or cannot trust their caregivers; form trusting relationships or become less trusting, hopeful and more worried

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Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

18 months to 3 years; will

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Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt crisis

can an individual do things themselves or are they reliant on the help of others; will and independence or anxiety, depression, lower academic achievement, lower coping skills

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Initiative vs. Guilt

3-5; purpose

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initiative vs guilt crisis

learn about the world around them, asking questions; sense of purpose, develop leadership skills or shame

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Industry vs. Inferiority

5-12; competency

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Industry vs. Inferiority crisis

enter experiences in society beyond family; work independently and take responsibility or feel incapable when unable to meet challenges

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80

ego identity vs role confusion

12-18; fidelity

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ego identity vs role confusion crisis

questioning sense of self and place in the world; allow the exploration of self and self-identity or lack of sense and purpose

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82

Intimacy vs. Isolation

18-40; love

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intimacy vs isolation crisis

formation of intimate and loving relationships with other people; deep and meaningful connections or fearful of intimacy, isolation, inability to form relationship

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84

Generativity vs. Stagnation

40-65, care

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Generativity vs. Stagnation crisis

need to give to others, raising children, contributing to events that make society better; willing to engage in acts that promote wellbeing or frustrated with their past and become stagnated

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86

ego identity vs despair

65-death, wisdom

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ego identity vs despair crisis

reflection on life; wisdom peace and fulfilment or regret, bitterness and despair

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88

strengths of erikson's theory

Holistic approach considers multiple factors in development; Focuses on lifespan development and identity formation; Recognizes the impact of culture on development; Practical applications in various fields.

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Limitations of erikson’s theory

Lacks strong empirical evidence; Overemphasizes early experiences.; Limited focus on cognitive development; Simplified and deterministic view of development; Cultural bias in its Western perspective.

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90

Jean Piaget

Known for his theory of cognitive development in children

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91

Theory of Cognitive Development

children learn through actively constructing knowledge through hands-on experience; cognitive development goes through 4 stages: sensorimotor, pre operational, concrete, and formal

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92

Adaption

take in, process, organise, using new information in ways which enable us to adjust to changes in our environment

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Assimilation

taking in new information and fitting it into and making it part of a pre-existing mental idea about objects or experiences; explain or make sense of new information in terms of what we already know

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Assimilation example

a child may see a truck and call it a car, because a car is the only type of vehicle for which the child has a pre-existing mental idea

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accommodation

changing a pre-existing mental idea in order to fit new information (more advanced than assimilation)

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Accommodation example

child believes moon is a ball; circular objects are ball. however when is older, she understands that there are differences between a dull moon and ball, even though they are both circular. when she recognises the moon as being different from a ball, she will have accommodated it.

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Schema

basic building blocks of intelligent behaviour which we use to understand and respond to situations; what something is and how to act on it

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how is schema created

assimilation and accommodation

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schema example

your schema for Christmas may include presents, Christmas tree, Santa , shopping, money, summer, holiday. someone else may have a different schema that includes church, Jesus , birth, family, giving.

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models of thinking

egocentric -> symbolic thinking -> abstract thinking

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