WVU PSIO 107 Exam 4

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Which of the following elements is included in hemoglobin molecules?

a. Cobalt

b. Iron

c. Copper

d. Iodine

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Circulatory System, Blood, Lymphatic System

127 Terms

1

Which of the following elements is included in hemoglobin molecules?

a. Cobalt

b. Iron

c. Copper

d. Iodine

b. Iron

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2

Which of the white blood cells are important in the specific defense mechanisms (immunity)?

a. Basophils

b. Eosinophils

c. Neutrophils

d. Lymphocytes

d. Lymphocytes

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3

Describe the layered appearance, from top to bottom, of a tube of blood that has been centrifuged to obtain a hematocrit.

a. Buffy coat, plasma, red blood cells

b. Plasma, Buffy coat, red blood cells

c. Plasma, red blood cells, Buffy coat

b. Plasma, Buffy coat, red blood cells

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4

True or False: An individual may have an infection if his buffy coat is thicker than normal.

True

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5

True or False: Mothers who have type A- blood that are pregnant with their second type A+ child will have to worry about erythroblastosis fetalis (Rh antibody reaction with Rh antigen).

True

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6

True or False: Mature erythrocytes do not have a nucleus.

True

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7

Which of the white blood cells secretes heparin and histamine?

a. Eosinophils

b. Basophils

c. Neutrophils

d. Lymphocytes

b. Basophils

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8

Which of the white blood cells are important with parasitic infection?

a. Basophils

b. Eosinophils

c. Neutrophils

d. Lymphocytes

b. Eosinophils

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9

Which hematocrit value would likely be seen with anemia?

a. 45%

b. 35%

c. 55%

d. 50%

b. 35%

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10

What characteristic is shared by eosinophils and basophils?

a. They both do not have nuclei

b. They are granulocytes

c. They are agranulocytes

d. They form the immune system

b. They are granulocytes

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11

Type AB blood contains

a. antigens A and B

b. antibody A and antigen B

c. antigen A and antibody B

d. antibodies A and B

a. antigens A and B

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12

Type O blood contains

a. antigens A and B

b. antibodies A and B

c. antibody A

d. antibody B

b. antibodies A and B

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13

Type B+ blood contains

a. antibody B and the Rh factor

b. antigen B and the Rh factor

c. antibody A and the Rh antibody

b. antigen B and the Rh factor

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14

Which of the following is an example of a specific body defense mechanism?

a. Phagocytosis

b. Immunity

c. Inflammation

d. Interferon and complement proteins

b. Immunity

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15

Which step in hemolysis is caused by the release of serotonin from vascular wall cells?

a. Vascular spasm

b. Platelet plug

c. Coagulation

d. Thrombolysis

a. Vascular spasm

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16

Which of the white blood cells are the phagocytic cell largely responsible for removing debris?

a. Basophils

b. Eosinophils

c. Neutrophils

d. Lymphocytes

c. Neutrophils

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17

Which blood type is considered the "universal recipient"?

a. Type A

b. Type B

c. Type AB

d. Type O

c. Type AB

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18

Which fluid associated with blood does not contain clotting factors?

a. Formed elements

b. Plasma

c. Serum

c. Serum

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19

Blood returning to the heart pass through which major vessels?

a. Arteries

b. Arterioles

c. Capillaries

d. Veins

d. Veins

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20

Identify the type of vessel that sits between two capillary beds, such as between the intestines and liver capillaries.

a. Artery

b. Shunt

c. Portal vein

d. Lymphatic vessel

c. Portal vein

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21

Blood is supplied to the heart by means of the ___________ arteries.

a. coronal

b. coronary

c. cardinal

d. cerebral

b. coronary

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22

When the ventricles contract:

a. the bicuspid valve opens and the tricuspid valve closes

b. the tricuspid valve opens and the bicuspid valve closes

c. both the bicuspid and tricuspid valves close

d. both the bicuspid and tricuspid valves open

c. both the bicuspid and tricuspid valves close

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23

Which heart chamber sends blood to the lungs for oxygenation?

a. Right atrium

b. Left atrium

c. Right ventricle

d. Left ventricle

c. Right ventricle

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24

Which of the following would enhance blood return to the heart?

a. Constriction of arterioles

b. Skeletal muscle contraction

c. Vasodilation

d. Increased parasympathetic tone

b. Skeletal muscle contraction

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25

True or False: Arteries have thicker walls than veins.

True

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26

Prior to birth, what channel exists between the right atrium and the left atrium?

a. Foramen ovale

b. Ductus arteriosus

c. Ductus venosus

d. Oval window

a. Foramen ovale

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27

Which heart chamber receives blood from the pulmonary circulation?

a. Right atrium

b. Left atrium

c. Right ventricle

d. Left ventricle

b. Left atrium

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28

The cardioinhibitory reflex results in

a. the increase in heart rate to increase blood pressure

b. the reduction of heart rate to reduce blood pressure

c. the increase in heart rate to decrease blood pressure

d. the reduction in heart rate to increase blood pressure

b. the reduction of heart rate to reduce blood pressure

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29

Which blood vessels serve as the "body's resistance vessels"?

a. Arteries

b. Arterioles

c. Capillaries

d. Veins

b. Arterioles

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30

When the heart contracts, into what type of vessel is blood pumped first?

a. Arteries

b. Veins

c. Capillaries

d. Arterioles

a. Arteries

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31

Depolarization of a cardiac muscle cell is similar to skeletal muscles with the exception of the movement of which ion across the membrane to lengthen the duration of the action potential?

a. Sodium

b. Potassium

c. Calcium

d. Magnesium

c. Calcium

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32

True or False: Unlike veins, arteries have valves that ensure one-way blood flow.

False

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33

Which heart chamber receives blood from the peripheral circulation?

a. Right atrium

b. Left atrium

c. Right ventricle

d. Left ventricle

a. Right atrium

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34

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves in passing from the vena cava to the lungs?

a. right atrium, pulmonary semilunar valve, right ventricle, tricuspid valve

b. right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve

c. tricuspid valve, right atrium, pulmonary semilunar valve, right ventricle

d. pulmonary semilunar valve, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle

b. right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve

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35

True or False: Metabolically active tissues have more extensive capillary networks.

True

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36

Which of the cardiac pacemakers is normally responsible for the heart rate of contraction?

a. Sinoatrial node

b. Atrioventricular node

c. Purkinje fibers

d. Ectopic focus

a. Sinoatrial node

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37

Heart valves

a. ensure one-way blood flow

b. open when hydrostatic pressure is higher in "upstream" versus the "downstream" side

c. that are leaky will produce a swishing sound upon auscultation

d. all of these choices are true

d. all of these choices are true

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38

The correct sequence of parts that function to carry cardiac impulses is

a. A-V node, S-A node, Purkinje fibers, bundle of His

b. A-V node, bundle of His, Purkinje fibers, S-A node.

c. S-A node, Purkinje fibers, A-V node, bundle of His.

d. S-A node, A-V node, bundle of His, Purkinje fibers.

d. S-A node, A-V node, bundle of His, Purkinje fibers.

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39

Which heart chamber sends blood to the peripheral circulation?

a. Right atrium

b. Left atrium

c. Right ventricle

d. Left ventricle

d. Left ventricle

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40

True or False: Heart valves open because of specialized valve muscles that pull them open.

False

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41

True or False: The heart is located in the thoracic cavity in the mediastinum.

True

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42

True or False: A normal heart is governed only by its pacemakers and not by nervous or endocrine input.

False

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43

Which of the following is true of pacemakers?

a. They are self-exciting tissues

b. The fastest pacemaker governs the rate of the heartbeat

c. They are non-contractile cells

d. All of these choices are true

d. All of these choices are true

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44

The blood pressure in the systemic arteries is greatest during

a. atrial systole

b. ventricular systole

c. ventricular diastole

d. arterial diastole

b. ventricular systole

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45

This blood vessel delivers blood to the liver, spleen, and stomach.

a. Common carotid

b. Celiac artery

c. Iliac artery

d. Mesenteric artery

b. Celiac artery

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46

Starling's Law of the heart holds that the

a. greater the length of myocardial fibers, the greater the force with which they contract, up to an optimum length.

b. lesser the length of myocardial fibers, the greater the force with which they contract.

c. lesser the length of myocardial fibers, the greater the force with which they contract.

d. lesser the blood viscosity, the lesser the force of ventricular contraction.

a. greater the length of myocardial fibers, the greater the force with which they contract, up to an optimum length.

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47

The vena cava

a. is a large vein returning blood from the body tissues

b. connects the heart to the lungs

c. delivers blood to the brain and upper torso

d. serves as a site of nutrient exchange with tissues in the thoracic cavity

a. is a large vein returning blood from the body tissues

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48

What component of red blood cells carries most of the blood’s oxygen?

a. Myoglobin

b. Hemoglobin

c. Nucleus

d. Ribosomes

b. Hemoglobin

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49

What is the term that describes too few red blood cells in circulation?

a. Polycythemia

b. Hemochromatosis

c. Thrombosis

d. Anemia

d. Anemia

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50

This cell type is vital for the clotting process:

a. Red blood cell

b. Neutrophil

c. Platelet

d. Lymphocyte

c. Platelet

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51

This is the correct order of the 3 key steps of hemostasis:

a. coagulation, platelet plug formation, vascular spasm

b. platelet plug formation, coagulation, vascular spasm

c. vascular spasm, coagulation, platelet plug formation

d. vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation

d. vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation

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52

Red blood cells are produced in the ______ and stimulated for growth by ___________.

a. bloodstream; temperature

b. bone marrow; erythropoietin

c. cortical bone; erythropoietin

d. spine; oxygen

b. bone marrow; erythropoietin

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53

Type A blood has antibodies against which type of blood?

a. Type B

b. Type A

c. Type AB

d. Type O

a. Type B

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54

The difference between O negative and O positive blood is the presence of:

a. A antibodies

b. B antibodies

c. Rh antigen

d. O antigen

c. Rh antigen

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55

Which white blood cells are important in the cell-mediated arm of the immune system?

a. Natural killer cells

b. T cells

c. B cells

d. Plasma cells

b. T cells

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56

The cells that are actively engaged in producing antibodies are called?

a. Natural killer cells

b. Cytotoxic T cells

c. Plasma cells

d. Helper T cells

c. Plasma cells

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57

True or False: Compliment proteins will organize into pore structures in a foreign organism causing cells to rupture.

True

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58

In which tissues might you expect to find lymphocytes?

a. Spleen

b. Lymph node

c. Red bone marrow

d. All of these

d. All of these

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59

True or False: The right lymphatic duct drains a larger area of the body than the left lymphatic duct.

False

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60

Which of the following is a function of the spleen?

a. Remove foreign organisms

b. Remove aged and dead red blood cells

c. Serve as a blood reservoir

d. All of these

d. All of these

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61

Which of the following is the largest lymphatic organ?

a. Spleen

b. Lymph node

c. Thymus gland

d. Lymphatic capillary

a. Spleen

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62

An infant that is protected by antibodies obtained by breastfeeding from its mother is

a. naturally-acquired active immunity

b. naturally-acquired passive immunity

c. artificially-acquired active immunity

d. artificially-acquired passive immunity

b. naturally-acquired passive immunity

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63

Which of these is true of hypersensitivity?

a. Above "normal" sensitivity to an antigen is known as an allergy.

b. Reactions to antigens are similar to reactions to any foreign invader

c. Symptoms of hypersensitivity take a week or more to develop following exposure

d. Rashes, swelling, or itching rarely occurs with hypersensitivity.

a. Above "normal" sensitivity to an antigen is known as an allergy.

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64

In what areas of the body would you expect to find lymphoid nodules?

a. Within tissue capillary beds

b. In the walls of non-hollow organs such as the liver.

c. In the epidermis

d. Within the walls of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts

c. In the epidermis

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65

Which of the following cell types cannot retain "memory" of foreign antigens?

a. T cells

b. B cells

c. NK cells

c. NK cells

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66

Which white blood cell matures in the bone marrow and is important in antibody-mediated immunity?

a. Natural killer cells

b. B cells

c. Helper T cells

b. B cells

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67

Lymphatic collecting vessels resemble what structures in the vasculature?

a. Arteries

b. Arterioles

c. Veins

d. Capillaries

c. Veins

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68

True or False: Macrophages and other phagocytic cells can remove dead tissue to prepare for wound repair.

True

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69

What are the functions of the blood?

carry oxygen and CO2, provide capability of defense by carrying immune cells and antimicrobial chemicals, carry blood clotting cells and substances, and carry nutrients and wastes

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70

What makes blood yellow? What has yellow blood?

Vanabin that contains vanadium; beetles

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71

What makes blood green? What has green blood?

Chlorocruorin; worms

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72

What makes blood blue? What has blue blood?

hemocyanin that contains copper; spiders, octopus, squid

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73

What makes blood purple? What has purple blood?

Hemerythrin; brachipods, penis worms

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74

What makes up blood?

Formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes) and plasma

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75

What are erythrocytes?

red blood cells

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76

What are leukocytes?

white blood cells

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77

What are thrombocytes?

platelets

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78

erythropoiesis

process by which red blood cells are replaced from red bone marrow

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79

anemia

too few red blood cells

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80

polycythemia

too many red blood cells

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81

Which leukocytes are granulocytes?

basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils

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82

basophils

produce heparin and histamine

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83

neutrophils

phagocytes; help fight off infection

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84

eosinophils

respond to parasites or allergens

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85

Which leukocytes are agranulocytes?

monocytes and lymphocytes

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86

monocytes

turn into macrophages when activated

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87

lymphocytes

T-cells and B-cells; control immunity

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88

What is the function of a leukocyte (white blood cell)?

immune response to pathogens and host defenses

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89

platelets

mediate part of clotting process

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90

vascular spasm

serotonin induced vasoconstriction

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91

platelet plug formation

platelets attach to exposed collagen; groups of platelets contract to reduce the size of the gap

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92

coagulation

clotting

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93

hemophilia

too little clotting

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94

Erythropoietin

stimulates red blood cell formation

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95

A 32 y.o. woman comes into the emergency department with a swollen and painful leg after she just finished driving cross-country for vacation. You are concerned she may have a clot in the leg called deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). What cell type is directly involved in causing this pathologic process?

a. red blood cells

b. basophils

c. platelets

d. neutrophils

c. platelets

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96

A 75 y.o. man comes into the office with a month of fatigue and shortness of breath. He has labs drawn that show anemia (too few red blood cells), which is likely the cause of his symptoms. What component of blood is responsible for carrying most of the oxygen in blood?

a. nucleus of red blood cells

b. white blood cells

c. plasma

d. hemoglobin in red blood cells

d. hemoglobin in red blood cells

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97

Agglutination

occurs when incompatible blood types are mixed

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98

A 22 y.o. msn is taken to the ER after an ATV accident. He has a large laceration on his leg that is bleeding extensively, and he will require a blood transfusion. He has Type A blood. Which of the following components in his Type A blood is the reason he cannot receive a Type B blood transfusion?

a. B antigen

b. A antigen

c. Anti-B antibody

d. Anti-A antibody

c. Anti-B antibody

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99

What are the 4 chambers of the heart?

left and right atrium, left and right ventricles

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100

Pulmonary circulation

through the lungs

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