ANATOMY Test 1

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102 Terms

1

Tissue

  • alike in structure

  • common function

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what are the different types of tissue

  1. connective tissue

  2. muscle tissue

  3. epithelial tissue

  4. nervous tissue

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Connective tissue

connects things together

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muscle tissue

movement

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epithelial tissue

protects (ex. skin)

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nervous tissue

controls (brain, nerves)

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what are the types of epithelial tissue

  1. covering/lining epithelium

    1. covers body surfaces and internal body

    2. allows the body to interact with the internal and external environment

  2. granular epithelium

    1. formation of glands

<ol><li><p>covering/lining epithelium</p><ol><li><p>covers body surfaces and internal body</p></li><li><p>allows the body to interact with the internal and external environment</p></li></ol></li><li><p>granular epithelium</p><ol><li><p>formation of glands</p></li></ol></li></ol>
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functions of epithelial tissue

  1. protect

  2. absorb

  3. secrete

    1. sensory reception

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Structure - apical surface

  • free surface unprotected to the external environment or cavity of origin

  • microvilli → sensory reception

  • cilia → helps with movement

<ul><li><p>free surface unprotected to the external environment or cavity of origin</p></li><li><p>microvilli → sensory reception</p></li><li><p>cilia → helps with movement</p></li></ul>
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structure - basal surface

anchored surface

<p>anchored surface</p>
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Basal Lamina

  • basement membrane

  • sticky sheet

  • joins epithelial tissue and connective tissue

    • connective tissue offers support b/c anchoring is stable

    • can act as a filter (abosrb, secrete)

<ul><li><p>basement membrane</p></li><li><p>sticky sheet</p></li><li><p>joins epithelial tissue and connective tissue</p><ul><li><p>connective tissue offers support b/c anchoring is stable</p></li><li><p>can act as a filter (abosrb, secrete)</p></li></ul></li></ul>
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what are the three layers of epithelial tissue `

  1. simple - single layer

    • substances pass through

    • lining of apical surface and basal

    • absorb and secrete

    • thin

  2. Pseudostratified

    • each cell has contact with basement membrane

    • one layer

    • nuclei in each cell is squeezed

    • middle ground

    • protect but important that substance pass through

      • usually respiratory system

  3. Stratified

    • multiple layers

    • not all cells are in contact with the basement membrane

    • protects (difficult for things to penetrate)

<ol><li><p>simple - single layer </p><ul><li><p>substances pass through</p></li><li><p>lining of apical surface and basal</p></li><li><p>absorb and secrete </p></li><li><p>thin</p></li></ul></li><li><p>Pseudostratified</p><ul><li><p>each cell has contact with basement membrane </p></li><li><p>one layer</p></li><li><p>nuclei in each cell is squeezed   </p></li><li><p>middle ground</p></li><li><p>protect but important that substance pass through</p><ul><li><p>usually respiratory system </p></li></ul></li></ul></li><li><p>Stratified </p><ul><li><p>multiple layers</p></li><li><p>not all cells are in contact with the basement membrane </p></li><li><p>protects (difficult for things to penetrate) </p></li></ul></li></ol>
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What are the three type of cell shape in epithelial tissue

  1. squamous - flat

  2. Cuboidal - cubed

  3. Columnar - skinny and long

<ol><li><p>squamous - flat</p></li><li><p>Cuboidal - cubed</p></li><li><p>Columnar - skinny and long</p></li></ol>
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Epithelial tissue

  • more layers = more protection

  • single layer = easier for substances to pass through

  • cilia - helpful in moving substances involved in sensation

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What is simple squamous

  • very thin layer

  • need to be in areas where absorption and secretion is important

    • blood vessels, air sacs in lungs (tiny molecules need to pass through)

<ul><li><p>very thin layer</p></li><li><p>need to be in areas where absorption and secretion is important </p><ul><li><p>blood vessels, air sacs in lungs (tiny molecules  need to pass through) </p></li></ul></li></ul>
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Stratified Squamous

  • very thick

  • protection is needed

    • ex. skin

  • more cubes towards the basement membrane

<ul><li><p>very thick</p></li><li><p>protection is needed </p><ul><li><p>ex. skin</p></li></ul></li><li><p>more cubes towards the basement membrane </p></li></ul>
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Glandular Epithelium

  • glands has more or one cell

    • make or secrete a particular substance (saliva, hormones)

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What are the two types of Glandular Epithelium

  1. endocrine - secreted into bloodstream

    • not controlled and flows throughout body

  2. Exocrine - travels via duct to destination

    • controlled and localized

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What does connective tissue do?

supports body structure

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What are the 4 types of connective tissue

  1. connective proper tissue

  2. cartilage

  3. bone

  4. blood

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Mesenchyme

  • all come from the same type of blood when developing

    • ORIGINAL CELL type

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What are the 5 functions of connective tissue

  1. binding and supporting

  2. protecting

  3. insulating

  4. storing reserve fuel

  5. transporting substances

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Connective tissue structure - reticular fibers

  • consists of collagen and glycoproteins

  • provide support in blood vessel walls and form networks around cells

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Connective tissue structure - Elastic fibers

  • stretchable and strong fibers made of proteins and elastin and fibrillin

  • found om skin, blood vessels and lung tissue

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Connective tissue structure - Collagen fibers

  • strong, flexible and bundles of collagen

  • most abundant proteins in body

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Ground substance fibers

non-living/extracellular matrix

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What do fibers do to connective tissue

add integrity to structure

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Ground substance

  • material between cells and fibers

  • fluid

  • made up of water and organic molecules

  • supports cells and fibers

    • binds together and provide a medium for exchanging substances between blood and cells

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connective tissue

living

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Connective proper tissue

  • binds

  • resist tension/mechanical stress

    • ligaments → connects bones together at joint

  • fat storage

  • provide reservoir for water and salts

  • 6 TYPES - different types have diff. functions

<ul><li><p>binds </p></li><li><p>resist tension/mechanical stress </p><ul><li><p>ligaments → connects bones together at joint</p></li></ul></li><li><p>fat storage </p></li><li><p>provide reservoir for water and salts </p></li><li><p>6 TYPES - different types have diff. functions </p><p></p></li></ul>
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where can connective proper tissue

  • adipose (fat)

  • Under (supporting) epithelia

  • Ligaments (connect bones)

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Connective tissue - Cartilage

  • resist compression (high level of H2O in matrix (ground substances)

    • found in joint

  • cushion and supports body structure to avoid bones rubbing together

<ul><li><p>resist compression (high level of H2O in matrix (ground substances)</p><ul><li><p>found in joint </p></li></ul></li><li><p>cushion and supports body structure to avoid bones rubbing together </p></li></ul>
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What are the three types of cartilage

  1. Hyaline - within joint

  2. Elastic - ears, nose

  3. Fibrocartilage - tough and not common, more mobility

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Connective tissue - bone

  • very hard

  • resist compression and tension

  • support of body structure

<ul><li><p>very hard </p></li><li><p>resist compression and tension </p></li><li><p>support of body structure </p></li></ul>
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What are the two types of bones

  1. compact

  2. spongy

  • collagen fibers and calcium give bones its strength

<ol><li><p>compact </p></li><li><p>spongy </p></li></ol><ul><li><p>collagen fibers and calcium give bones its strength </p></li></ul>
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Muscle

  • cells packed tightly together

  • increased blood supply

  • responsible for majority of body movements

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Connective tissue - blood

  • fluid tissue

  • carries O2 and CO2, nutrients, waste and other substance

  • transport

<ul><li><p>fluid tissue</p></li><li><p>carries O2 and CO2, nutrients, waste and other substance </p></li><li><p>transport </p></li></ul>
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What are the three types of muscle

  1. cardiac muscle cell

  2. skeletal muscle cell - voluntary muscle movement

  3. smooth muscle cell - organs and blood vessels/involuntary

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Nervous Tissue

  • bring and receive info

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What are the main components of nervous system

brain, spinal cord and nerves

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What are the two types of nervous tissue

  1. neurons - electrical signal

  2. supporting cells - no electrical signal

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Bones

  • they are organs

  • made up of more than one tissue

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What are the functions of bone

  • dynamic structure ]

  • marrow - within bones

  1. Support

  2. protect

  3. anchorage - solid anchor for other structure

  4. mineral/growth factor storage - calcium

  5. blood cell formation- marrow

  6. triglyceride (fat) storage - adipose tissue - marrow

  7. Hormone production - lets nervous system know whats going on in the bones

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Bone classification

  1. location

  2. shape

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Bone classification - location

  • axial

    • main axis which body moves

  • Appendicular

    • appendages - limbs

<ul><li><p>axial </p><ul><li><p>main axis which body moves</p></li></ul></li><li><p>Appendicular </p><ul><li><p>appendages - limbs  </p></li></ul></li></ul>
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Bone classification - shape

  • long

  • short

  • flat

  • sesamoid

  • irregular

<ul><li><p>long</p></li><li><p>short</p></li><li><p>flat</p></li><li><p>sesamoid</p></li><li><p>irregular </p></li></ul>
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Compact vs spongy bone

compact

  • strong outer layer

  • smooth and solid

Spongy

  • strips of bone that creates honeycomb shape

  • internal layer

  • contains marrow - can store more due to shape

<p>compact</p><ul><li><p>strong outer layer</p></li><li><p>smooth and solid</p></li></ul><p>Spongy</p><ul><li><p>strips of bone that creates honeycomb shape </p></li><li><p>internal layer </p></li><li><p>contains marrow - can store more due to shape </p></li></ul>
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Structure of long bone

  • diaphysis

    • thick compact bone wall

    • spongy bone and medullary cavity - marrow stored

  • epiphysis

    • thinner compact bone outside covering

    • ton of spongy bone

  • Hyaline cartilage

    • shock absorbent

  • Metaphysis - growth in bone

  • Epiphyseal line - compact bone

Wider ends, narrow middle

<ul><li><p><strong>diaphysis </strong></p><ul><li><p>thick compact bone wall</p></li><li><p>spongy bone and medullary cavity - marrow stored </p></li></ul></li><li><p><strong>epiphysis </strong></p><ul><li><p>thinner compact bone outside covering </p></li><li><p>ton of spongy bone </p></li></ul></li><li><p><strong>Hyaline cartilage </strong></p><ul><li><p>shock absorbent </p></li></ul></li><li><p>Metaphysis - growth in bone </p></li><li><p>Epiphyseal line - compact bone</p></li></ul><p>Wider ends, narrow middle</p>
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Red Marrow

  • blood production

  • RBC

  • in trabecular cavities of long and flat bone

  • trabecular cavity - spongy bone and medullary cavity

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Yellow marrow

  • fat storage

  • can turn back into red marrow in adults with severe anemia, low RBC and O2 w/anemia

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Newborn Marrow

  • medullary cavities and spongy bone full of red marrow and gets replaced with yellow marrow overtime

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Cartilage in Skeleton

  1. Hyaline

  2. Elastic

  3. Fibrocartilage

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What is the purpose of cartilage in the skeleton

Resilient: resist compression

  • resilient b/c has lots of water

  • absorb compression

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What is Hyaline cartilage

  • Provides support with flexibility and resilience

  • MOST abundant skeletal cartilage

  • Locations:

    • articular - joints

    • respiratory

    • costal (ribs)

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what is costal

rib

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what type of cartilage can be found in the nose?

hyaline and elastic

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What is elastic cartilage

  • more elastic fibers compared to hyaline

  • better able to stand up to repeated bending

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Where can elastic cartilage be found?

  • external ear

  • epiglottis → bend and rise to prevent food from entering the lungs

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What is fibrocartilage

  • has great strength (very strong and made up of thick collagen fibers)

  • located where there is a lot of pressure and stretching

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where can fibrocartilage be found

  • menisci of knee

  • intervertebral discs (allow for flexibility)

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Cartilage in the growing skeleton

  • cartilage makes up the majority of the fetal skeleton

  • has lots of elastic and water (resilient)

  • ideal for fast growth → can turn into bones after growth

    • no nerves or blood vessels

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what is avascular and importance

  • no blood or nerves

  • brings in nutrients such as O2 from nearby vessels

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What is ossification

cartilage to bone (usually takes around 8 weeks in fetus)

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are break and fracture the same thing?

yes

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What is a non displaced done

ends of bones retain NORMAL position

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what is a displaced bone

OUT of alignment

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What is complete break

bone is broken through

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what is an incomplete break

bone broken only part way through

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what can an incomplete break also be known as?

harline fracture

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what is a closed (simple) fracture

bone DOESN’T penetrate the skin

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what is an open (compound) fracture

bone DOES penetrate the skin

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What is a comminuted fracture and where does it take place

  • in humerus

  • splintered/crushed or broken into pieces

  • bone fragments are present at site of fracture

<ul><li><p>in humerus </p></li><li><p>splintered/crushed or broken into pieces </p></li><li><p>bone fragments are present at site of fracture </p></li></ul>
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What is a greenstick fracture and where does it take place

  • in ulna

  • partial fracture - bends and snaps

  • occurs ONLY in children

  • bones are fully ossified

<ul><li><p>in ulna </p></li><li><p>partial fracture - bends and snaps </p></li><li><p>occurs ONLY in children </p></li><li><p>bones are fully ossified </p></li></ul>
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What is a impacted fracture and where does it occur

  • in humerus

  • one end of the bone is forcefully driven into other end of bone

    • “Jamming motion”

<ul><li><p>in humerus </p></li><li><p>one end of the bone is forcefully driven into other end of bone </p><ul><li><p>“Jamming motion”</p></li></ul></li></ul>
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What is a pott fracture and where does it occur?

  • in the ankle

  • one of the malleoli (bump on ankle)

<ul><li><p>in the ankle </p></li><li><p>one of the malleoli (bump on ankle)</p><p></p></li></ul>
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What is a colles fracture and where does it occur

  • wrist bones

  • distal end of radius

<ul><li><p>wrist bones</p></li><li><p>distal end of radius </p></li></ul>
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Fracture repair - closed (external) reduction

  • physically manually coaxes bones back into position

  • lots of force and painful

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Fracture repair - open (internal) reduction

  • bone ends are secured surgically with pins and wires

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Fracture healing repairing steps

  1. hematoma forms

    • bunch of blood rushes to the area

  2. Fibrocartilaginous callus forms

    • fibrocartilage is present

    • replace blood with fibrocartilaginous

  3. Bony callus forms

    • fibrocartilage gets replaced with bone

  4. Bone remodelling occurs

    • want bone to be smooth

    • specialized cell eat up extra stuffy and gt shape we want

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When does fracture healing occur

immediately after

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How long does a fracture take to heal

  • couple of months

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How fast do reductions of bones usually happen

usually within a couple of hours

  • needs to happen ASAP

<p>usually within a couple of hours </p><ul><li><p>needs to happen ASAP</p></li></ul>
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Osteomalacia

  • soft and weak dones

  • due to POOR mineralization

    • usually vitamin D or calcium def.

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Rickets

  • disease in children

  • dangerous to children due to their bones growing rapidly

  • epiphyseal plate cannot calcify so long bones become enlarged

  • cannot support weight

  • bending under the pressure

<ul><li><p>disease in children</p></li><li><p>dangerous to children due to their bones growing rapidly </p></li><li><p>epiphyseal plate cannot calcify so long bones become enlarged</p></li><li><p>cannot support weight </p></li><li><p>bending under the pressure </p></li></ul>
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85

Osteoporosis

  • bone resorption (breakdown of bone) happens more than deposition (laying down new bone)

  • common in older adults

    • decreased sex hormone (ex. estrogen)

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Osteoporosis treatment

  • Ca2+

  • Vit. D

  • hormone replacement therapy

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Osteoporosis prevention

  • adequate nutrition, load bearing exercise

  • promote bone deposition throughout lifespan

<ul><li><p>adequate nutrition, load bearing exercise</p></li><li><p>promote bone deposition throughout lifespan </p></li></ul>
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what does the axial system protect?

Brain, spinal cord, thoracic organs

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Bone benefits do the bones of the skull

  • framework of face

  • contain cavities for special sense organs (taste, smell, sight)

  • provide OPENINGS for air and food passage

  • secure teeth

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What are the cranium bones and how many do we have?

  • frontal (1)

  • Occipital (1)

  • Sphenoid (1)

  • Parietal (2)

  • Temporal (2)

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What are the facial bones and how many do we have of each

  • mandible (1)

  • Vomer (1)

  • Maxilla (2)

  • Zygomatic (2)

  • Nasal (2)

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How is the vertebral column divided

  • Cervical (7)

  • Thoracic (12)

  • Lumbar (5)

  • Sacral (5)

  • Coccygeal (4)

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What bones in the vertebral column are fused

  • sacral

  • coccygeal

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Intervertebral disc

  • starts at C2

  • cartilage and gelatinous interior

    • helps with support of weight and movement

  • fibrocartilage rings surround annulus fibrosus

  • distribute weight evenly across the intervertebral disc

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Atlas - C1

  • connects to skull

  • no vertebral body or spinous process

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Axis (C2)

  • Dens - allows C1 to rotate around C2 (atlantoaxial joint)

  • Transverse ligament holds atlas in place and allows rotation movement

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C7

  • inferior of cervical vertebrae

  • spinous process is not bifid

  • DOES have transverse foramina

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How many ribs do we have in total

12

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How many of true ribs do we have

7

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How many false ribs do we have

5

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