Dev Psych Exam #3

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Concrete Operational Stage

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192 Terms

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Concrete Operational Stage

the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic

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Decentering

the ability to take multiple aspect of a situation into account

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Reversibility

understand the notion that processes transforming a stimulus can be reversed

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Metamemory

an understanding about the processes that underlie memory that emerges and improves during middle childhood

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Control strategies

conscious, intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive processing

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Memory strategies are:

keyword strategy, rehearsal, cognitive elaboration, organization

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Reciprocal Teaching

a technique used to teach reading comprehension strategies, in which students are taught to skim the content of a passage, raise questions about its central point, summarize the passage, and finally predict what will happen next

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Metalinguistic awareness

an understanding of ones own use of language

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Bilingualism

the ability to speak two languages

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Emotional intelligence

the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression and regulation of emotions

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Reading Stage 0

(birth to start of 1st grade) children learn the essential prerequisites for reading, such as identifying letters, writing their names, and reading a few familiar words

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Reading Stage 1

(first and second grade) children can sound out words by blending letters together, can also complete the job of learning the names of letters and the sounds that go along with them

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Reading Stage 2

(second and third grades) children learn to read aloud with fluency; usually don’t always understand the meanings of those words but rather focused on articulation

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Reading Stage 3

(fourth to eighth grade)- reading becomes a way to learn

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Reading Stage 4

children are able to read and process information that reflects multiple points of view

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Code-based approaches

reading should be taught by presenting the basic skills that underlie reading, such as the sounds of letters and their combinations to make words

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Whole-language approach

reading is viewed as a natural process, similar to the acquisition of oral language

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Teacher Expectancy effect

The phenomenon whereby an educator’s expectations for a given child actually bring about the expected behavior

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Multicultural Education

education in which the goal is to help students from minority cultures develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original cultures

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Cultural Assimilation Model

the view of American society as a "melting pot" in which all cultures are amalgamated into a unique, United American culture

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Pluralistic Society Model

the concept that American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultures that should preserve their individual features

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Bicultural Identity

the maintenance of one's original cultural identity while becoming integrated into the majority culture

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Charter school

independently run public schools that families can voluntarily choose for their children; often are small and sometimes have a specific focus such as on the arts, sciences or a particular language

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Homeschooling

students are taught at home by their parents in their own homes

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Private schools

schools that are paid for and usually smaller/more select schools that can offer more programming

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Intelligence

the capacity to understand the world, think with rationality, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges

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Mental age

the age of children take the test who, on average, achieved that score

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Chronological (Physical) Age

a person's age according to the calendar

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Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

a score that expresses the ratio between a person's mental and chronological ages

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Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales

a test that consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested

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Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)

a test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance (nonverbal) skills, as well as a total score

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Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

an intelligence test that measures children's ability to integrate different stimuli simultaneously and step-by-step thinking

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Fluid Intelligence

intelligence that reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory

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Crystallized Intelligence

the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experiences and that they can apply in problem-solving situations

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Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

the belief that intelligence consists of three aspects of information processing: the componential element, the experiential element, and the contextual element

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Componential element

how efficiently people can process and analyze information

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Experiential element

insightful component; how easily they can compare new material with information they already know in novel and creative ways

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Contextual element

practical intelligence; ways of dealing with demands of the everyday environment

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Intellectual Disability

a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills

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Mild Intellectual Disability

intellectual disability with IQ scores in the range of 50 or 55 to 70

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Moderate Intellectual Disability

intellectual disability with IQ scores from 35 or 40 to 50 or 55

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Severe Intellectual disability

intellectual disability with IQ scores that range from 20 or 25 to 35 or 40

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Profound Intellectual Disability

intellectual disability with IQ scores below 20 or 25

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Gifted and Talented

showing evidence of high-performance capability in intellectual, creative, or artistic areas, in leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields

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Acceleration

the provision of special programs that allow gifted students to move ahead at their own pace, even if this means skipping to higher grade levels

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Enrichment

approach through which students are kept at grade level bur are enrolled in special programs and given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic

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Ideal self

the perspectives of others that are incorporated into who a child wants to be

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Development in cognitive skills, such as perspective-taking skills, and a more complex social life during middle childhood leads to:

• Changes in self-concept • Descriptions of self as still based on competencies and social comparison • Sense of self becomes more balanced, fewer all-or-none descriptions; include references to social groups/comparisons -There is the emergence of the ideal self

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Increased differentiation in self-esteem (middle childhood)

Young children (preschool) are able to distinguish between acceptance and competence, but lump together all competencies and aspects of acceptance into one group

In middle childhood, they start dividing competencies with self-esteem into 4 different areas: Academic competence, Social competence, Physical/athletic competence and Physical appearance, allowing them to see themselves as more complex people

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Kitayama proposed that....

an individual construal is common within western culture, while a collective construal is characterized in eastern cultures

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Key factors influencing self-esteem are:

child-rearing practices, attributions of successes and failures, and Sociocultural and environmental factors around expectations of self shape how children view themselves in the context of their environments

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Child-rearing practices

what is valued by parents influences a child's values; acceptance of children, clearly defined limits/rules and respect of self in parenting all help with self-esteem. High expectations, focusing on traits, shape self-esteem

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Attributions of successes and failures

when children are able to see themselves a successful, will have a higher view of themselves. When they attribute failures and success as luck, they have learned helplessness and lower self-esteem. ability, effort and external factors

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Industry-Versus-Inferiority Stage

the period from ages 6 to 12 that is characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world -Success in this stage brings feelings of mastery and proficiency along with a growing sense of competence -Difficulties in this stage lead to feelings of failure and inadequacy, making children withdraw both from academic pursuits, showing less interest and motivation to excel, and from interactions with peers

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Social Comparison

the desire to evaluate one's own behavior, abilities, expertise and opinions by comparing them to those of others

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Social reality

understanding that is derived from how others act, think, feel, and view the world

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Downward social comparison

when children compare themselves with those who are obviously less competent or successful to protect children's self-esteem

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Self-Esteem in Middle Childhood

• Children in middle childhood start to increasingly compare themselves to others and assess how well they measure up to society's standards • Children develop their own senses of success, and self-esteem becomes increasingly differentiated in middle childhood -Generally, self-esteem increases during middle childhood with a brief decline around 12 years old -African-Americans and Hispanics show lower self-esteem in middle childhood, but it is higher than White Americans by the age of 11, due to finding identity in their culture

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Social Identity Theory

members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views held by a majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power and status differences between the groups. If minority group members feel that prejudice and discrimination can be reduced, and they blame society, and not themselves, for the prejudice, self-esteem should not differ between majority and minority groups

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60

According to William Damon, a child's view of friendship goes through _____ distinct phases:

three

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Stage 1: Basing friendship on others' behaviors

in the first stage, which ranges from around 4 to 7 years of age, children see friends as others who like them and with whom they share toys and other activities; not usually based on personal qualities

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Stage 2: Basing friendship on trust

from 8 to 10, children take others' personal qualities and traits as well as the rewards they provide into consideration, and the centerpiece of friendship is mutual trust

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Stage 3: Basing friendship on psychological closeness

begins towards the end of middle childhood, from 11 to 15 years of age, when children begin to develop friendships based on intimacy and loyalty

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Social Competence

the collection of social skills that permit individuals to perform successfully in social settings (popular children are high in this)

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Social Problem Solving

the use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself and to others

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Dominance Hierarchy

ranking that represents the relative social power of those in a group

-Boys are more focused on this, wanting to show social dominance over others in their friend groups.Girls rather focus on having one or two "best friends" and prefer to keep friendships at equal-level status

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Coregulation

a period in which parents and children jointly control children's behavior`

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Sibling rivalry

siblings competing or quarreling with one another

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Self-Care Child

children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their caretakers return from work

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Blended families

a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them

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71

Race and Family in Social Development

• African-Americans have a strong sense of family, and are more willing to offer support to extended family members in their homes. There is a relatively high proportion of families headed by older adults, such as grandparents •Hispanic families have a strong importance on family, as well as community and religious organizations. Children are taught to values their ties to families, and in general have larger family sizes compared to white families -Asian-Americans have strong father figure roles, and have a more collectivist view on family

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72

The __________________ shows significant changes from mid-childhood through the early 20s and is in charge of all of the behaviors we associate with intelligence, responsibility, and emotional maturity

frontal lobe within the cerebral cortex (specifically the prefrontal cortex)

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73

Adolescence is one of the most _________ periods of development

sensitive

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The three stages of adolescence are:

-Early adolescence (11-14)- marked by beginning of puberty -Middle adolescence (14-16) -Late adolescence (16-18)- taking on adult roles

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Puberty

a stage of rapid physical growth and sexual maturity (typically starts between the ages of 8 and 14)

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Pubertal changes consist of:

Body growth -Growth spurt -Proportion changes -Muscle-fat makeup -Cephalocaudal and proximodistal growth is reversed in adolescence

Sexual maturation -Reproductive organs enlarge and functions mature -Menarche and spermarche occur -Secondary characteristics occur (pubic hair, breast enlargement, etc)

Brain development -Myelination and synaptic pruning -Limbic system develops early in childhood (emotional responses) -Prefrontal cortex inhibits impulsive behavior and regulates emotions; still growing in adolescence

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Circadian changes in puberty

• "eveningness", the tendency to become more active at night, may increase risk of substance abuse and risk taking • Sleep debt may be influences by computer blue spectrum light, TV watching, and texting • Dangers from sleep deprivation and irregular sleep schedules include insomnia, nightmares, mood disorders, sleepiness while driving, and interference with learning -Three of every four high school seniors are sleep deprived

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Secular trends

earlier or greater growth as nutrition and medicine improved

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Secular trends in puberty

-puberty is happening sooner now than in previous generations -There is a link between puberty and stress, which means that stress can affect when puberty happens

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Consequences of pubertal timing by gender:

Overall, early maturing in girls causing low confidence and negative body image, while late maturing causes girls to be more popular and have a more positive body image. Boys have the opposite effect, with more popularity and confidence in early maturing.

<p>Overall, early maturing in girls causing low confidence and negative body image, while late maturing causes girls to be more popular and have a more positive body image. Boys have the opposite effect, with more popularity and confidence in early maturing.</p>
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Adolescent Growth Spurt

a period of very rapid growth in height and weight during adolescence -On average, boys grow 4.1 inches a year and girls 3.5 inches -Girls begin growth spurts around age 10, while boys start at about 12

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How/When Puberty begins

• Begins when pituitary gland in the brain signals other glands to begin producing sex hormones (androgens in males and estrogen in females) at adult levels, as well as to increase production of growth hormones -Girls puberty starts at around 11 or 12 years old, while for bots it begins are around 13 or 14 years, but there are variations in age when puberty starts

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Menarche

the onset of menstruation

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Spermarche

a boy's first ejaculation, which usually occurs at about 13 years old

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Primary Sex Characteristics

characteristics associated with the development of the organs and structures of the body that directly relate to reproduction

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Secondary Sex Characteristics

the visible signs of sexual maturity that do not involve the sex organs directly

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Anorexia Nervosa- a severe and potentially life-threatening eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior or skeletal appearance is out of the ordinary

a severe and potentially life-threatening eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior or skeletal appearance is out of the ordinary

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Bulimia

an eating disorder that primarily afflicts adolescent girls and young women, characterized by binges on large quantities of food followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives

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Stress

the response to events that threaten or challenge us • Usually results in a biological reaction as certain hormones cause a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and sweating, producing an "emergency reaction" in the sympathetic nervous system Long-term and continuous exposure to stressors may result in a reduction of the body's ability to deal with stress

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Psychosomatic Disorders

medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional and physical difficulties

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Coping

efforts to control, reduce, or tolerate the threats and challenges that lead to stress

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Problem-focused coping

attempt to manage a stressful problem or situation by directly changing the situation to make it less stressful

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Emotion-focused coping

involves the conscious regulation of emotion

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social support

assistance and comfort supplied by others; coping is aided by the presence of social support

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Defensive coping

the unconscious use of strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation

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Addictive Drugs

drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them

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Alcoholics

people who have learned to depend on alcohol and are unable to control their drinking

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Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)

a disease that is spread through sexual contact -1 in 4 adolescents contracts an STI before graduating from high school -It is important to practice safe sex to prevent from the long-term effects of STIs

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Statistics of addictive drugs in adolescence

-Three-fourths of college students consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the last 30 days. More than 40 percent say they’ve had five or more drinks within the past two weeks, and some 16 percent drink 16 or more drinks per week. Nearly three-quarters of high-school seniors report having had consumed alcohol by the end of high school, and about two-fifths have done so by the eighth grade. More than half of twelfth graders and nearly one-fifth of eighth graders say that they have been drunk at least once in their lives. -Binge drinking is especially common for college students, with over half of males and over 40 percent of females claiming to have binge-drinked within the past two weeks

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Formal Operational Stage

the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly, which is reached at around the age of 12/the start of adolescence

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