Personality Psychology - Exam 2

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Chapters 5,6,7

175 Terms

1

self

entire system of individuals knowledge, evaluation & regulation of him/herself

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2

Individualism

cultural system that values the needs of the individual self more than those of the group

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3

Collectivism

a cultural system that values the needs of the group more than those of the individual self

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4

self-concept

a person's image of him/herself

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5

4 Main aspects of Self-Concept

material self, social self, spiritual self, true self

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6

material self

the extension of the self into the body, clothes, and possessions

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7

the I & Me (William James)

I: Observing part Me: the part of the self we see "The I sees the me"

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8

self-schema

cognitive representation of the self (me) ex: future doctor, hates broccoli, geek

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9

social self

the part of the self related to group membership

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10

Charles Horton Cooley

used the term "looking-glass self" to explain that we see ourselves as we imagine others see us

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11

James Mark Baldwin

social unit, socius; claimed that all of society is 1 protoplasm

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12

George Herbert Mead

generalized other; the voices in our head that tell us how we are doing & judging our actionms

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13

self-monitoring

the tendency to monitor one's behavior to fit the current situation

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14

spiritual self

a person's moral center

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15

true self

the person you really are

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16

spiritual self includes

personality traits, cognitive abilities, moral beliefs

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17

authenticity

the extent to which a person feels aligned to his or her true self

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18

4 components of authenticity

awareness, unbiased processing, behavior, and authentic relationships

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19

awareness

motives, strengths, weaknesses

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20

unbiased processing

ability to see the good and the bad in the world and make decisions based on this information

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21

behavior

acting in a way that reflects the true self

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22

authentic relationship

a relationship in which someone can be who they really are

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23

imposter phenomenon

the experience of feeling like a phony, a fraud, or a fake

  • most likely when shifting social roles

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24

self-esteem

a person's attitude toward him/herself

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25

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

ten item scale; captures six pillars of self-esteem

highest score: 40, lowest 10, midpoint 25

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26

does self esteem cause success?

no

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27

2 outcomes of self esteem research

  1. feels good and leads people to take action (baumeister)

  2. feeling good is not trivial, low self esteem is a component of depression (orth & robins)

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28

implicit self-esteem

self-esteem you are not necessarily aware of having

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29

explicit self-esteem

self-esteem you are aware of having

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30

Donut personality

high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem

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31

self-enhancement

the desire to maintain, increase, or protect one's positive self-concept

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32

self-esteem regulation

the actions involved in maintaining high self-esteem

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33

sociometer theory

a theory linking level of self-esteem with level of belongingness

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34

loneliness

the experience of having fewer relationships than are desired

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35

self-evaluation maintenance model

a model that relates task performance, self relevance, and closeness to self-enhancement (tesser)

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36

Basking in Reflected Glory (BIRGing)

gaining self-esteem from being connected to a high status individual or group

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37

self-compassion

being kind to yourself; treating yourself with the same sense of compassion that you would treat others

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38

3 components of self-compassion

self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness

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39

self-kindness

being kind to yourself

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40

common humanity

the awareness that all humans make mistakes

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41

Mindfulness

being aware of your thoughts and feelings without becoming attached to them

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42

self-efficacy

the belief that one will be effective & successfully work toward goals

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43

Narcissm

personality trait that includes a very positive, grandiose view of self

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44

grandiose narcissism

narcissism including high extraversion and dominance but low neuroticism

more extroverted, socially bold

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45

vulnerable narcissism

narcissism including low extraversion and dominance but high neuroticism

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46

self-regulation

the process of guiding and directing yourself to a desired state

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47

possible selves

the selves you imagine you could be, whether ideal or feared

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48

ought selves

the person you think you should be

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49

ideal selves

the person you want to be

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50

self-discrepancy theory

a model linking the distance between the actual self and the ought and ideal selves to emotion

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51

discrepancy

the difference between where you are and where you want to be

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52

self-control

willpower; the ability to control one's own behavior

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53

practicing self control in 1 area improves self control in another area (T/F)

True

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54

ego depletion

The idea that self-control is a limited resource. If you use a lot of it, it can get used up and you'll have less to use in the future

self control has been exhausted

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55

psychodynamic theory

an umbrella term for models that focus on the personality as a complex interplay of conscious and unconscious motives, thoughts, and feelings

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56

Psycho analysis

the study of the dynamics of the mind created by Sigmund Freud

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57

Neo-analytic theorists

the psychodynamic theorists who came after Freud and took his ideas in new and interesting directions

-downplayed role of sex in psychological conflict

  • emphasized more on interpersonal relationships

Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney

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58

analytical psychology

Jung's psychodynamic theory, which emphasizes the collective and personal unconscious

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59

unconscious

the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness

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60

conscious

the part of the mind within our usual awareness

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61

transference

the way the client perceives the therapist

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62

hysteria

a psychological disorder characterized by unexplained physical symptoms such as blindness, fainting, or paralysis

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63

free association

a psychoanalytic technique involving saying whatever comes into your head

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64

topographical model

Freud's model of the mind that highlights the conflict between the pleasure principle and the reality principle

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65

3 main parts of topographical model

conscious, unconscious, preconscious

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66

preconcious mind

the barely conscious part of our minds that keep the unconscious out of conscious awareness

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67

censorship

the process of keeping the unconscious from entering consciousness

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68

pleasure principle

the driving force of the unconscious that wants whatever brings pleasure

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69

reality principle

the goals of the conscious mind, which finds what works in reality

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70

structural model

Sigmund Freud's model of the mind with three parts: the id (or "it"), the ego (or "I"), and the super-ego (or "above I").

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71

Id

the unconscious mind, motivated for pleasure and wish fulfillment (instincts)

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72

ego

the conscious mind that navigates between the ego and superego (REALITY)

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73

super-ego

the strict and demanding part of the mind (conscious/pain)

  • consists of the rules of the culture you were raised in (morality)

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74

Freudian slip

when what you really think deep down comes out as a slip of the tongue

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75

Libido (Freud)

(psychoanalysis) a Freudian term for sexual urge or desire

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76

Cathexis

the attachment of libido to thoughts, objects, or parts of the body

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77

Oral stage

the attachment of the libido to the mouth (0-12 mo)

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78

Anal stage

the attachment of the libido to the anus (1-3 yrs)

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79

phallic stage

the attachment of libido to the genitals (4-6 yrs)

the stage with oedipus complex

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80

latent stage

the quieting of the libido from age 6 until puberty

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81

genital stage

when the child begins adult sexual development in puberty (12+ yrs)

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82

oral fixation

when libido is attached to the mouth

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83

anal retentive

pleasure from retaining the bowels

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84

anal expulsive

pleasure from releasing the bowels

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85

oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father (phallic stage)

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86

castration anxiety

the male child's fear of being castrated by the father

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87

Electra complex

the unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win their father's romantic love

  • Freud disagreed with this

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88

penis envy

the idea that girls desire to have penises

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89

manifest content of dreams

the outward content of a dream

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90

latent content

the unconscious meaning of a dream

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91

wish fulfillment

the unconscious desire to have one's fantasies realized

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92

day residue

experiences from the day incorporated into a dream's manifest content

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93

dream interpretation

a technique used in psychoanalysis in which the content of dreams is analyzed for disguised or symbolic wishes, meanings, and motivations

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94

talking cure

Freud's term for the treatment of hysteria by talking in therapy sessions

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95

People high in neuroticism are more likely to have _________ nightmares

more

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96

defense mechanisms

strategies used to keep unconscious thoughts from the conscious mind

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97

defense mechanisms were coined by

anna freud

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98

8 defense mechanisms

denial, displacement, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, sublimation

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99

Denial

not acknowledging unconscious content

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100

reaction formation

disguising unconscious content by turning it into its opposite

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