UNLV BIOL 251 2.1 & 2.2 Regner

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Whose work was rediscovered in 1900?

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1

Whose work was rediscovered in 1900?

Gregory Mendel's work

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2

What did biologists begin genetic experiments on?

fly, rabbit, guinea pig, corn, tobacco

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3

What was observed during mitosis and meiosis?

chromosomes; however it was unclear how genes and alleles were connected

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4

genotype --> phenotype...

was a mystery

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5

What was found in the nucleus in 1868?

DNA

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6

What was the fibrous called?

nuclein

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7

Two types of nucleic acids

ribonucleic acid (RNA)

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

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8

RNA contains

uracil and ribose sugar

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9

DNA contans

thymine and deoxyribose sugar

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10

DNA and RNA were present in the ____, had an ____ function, and had no connection btwn ____ acids and ____

nucleus; unknown; nucleic; genetics

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11

What are drosophila?

fruit flies

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12

T.H Morgan's group showed that

genes were carried on chromosomes

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13

Which chromosome has the eye color gene?

X chromosome

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14

Protein(s) complex has ____ amino acids

20

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15

Protein(s) assumed to be _____ material

genetic

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16

DNA was considered

unimportant and uninteresting

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17

scientific name for ear infection

Griffith Streptococcus pneumonia

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18

Types of ear infections

pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis

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19

do smooth strains produce virulent or avirulent capsules?

virulent

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20

do rough strains produce virulent or avirulent capsules?

avirulent

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21

What was the result when mice were injected with live cells of harmless (R) strain?

Mice live; no live R cells (R cells avirulent) in blood

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22

What was the result with live cells of killer (S) strain?

mice got unalived; live S cells in blood

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23

What was the result when mice were injected with heat-killed S cells?

mice live; no live S cells in blood

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24

What was the result when mice were injected with live R cells + heat-killed S cells

mice unalive; live S & R cells in blood

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25

What did Griffith conclude from this mice experiment?

Griffith concluded that something from the heat-killed S cells transformed the live R cells

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26

What was the debate among scientists about the mice experiment?

debated about what molecule changed the R and S phenotypes

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27

What was the standard assumption about the Transforming Principle?

proteins were responsible for unaliving the mice

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28

What did scientists use that bind specifically to DNA?

dyes

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29

DNA doubles during what phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle?

"S" phase

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30

Symbol for diploid

2n

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31

Symbol for haploid

n

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32

Diploid and haploid describes the number of ____ and the amount of ____

chromosomes; DNA

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33

After meiosis, games have ____ the amount of DNA

half

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34

What is the Transforming Principle?

DNA, RNA, protein

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35

What are the degradative enzymes?

RNase, Protease, DNase

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36

Diagram of evaluating for the presence of cells

<p></p>
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37

What does RNase and Protease contain?

the both contain Virulent S strain and R strain bacteria

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38

What does DNase contain?

R strain bacteria only

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39

What did the Transforming Principle conclude?

R cells were transformed by DNA from heat-killed S cells

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40

Previous Exam Question:

What happened when Fred Griffith mixed heat-killed smooth (S) and live rough (R) strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae?

A. mRNA from the heat-killed S cells were translated into lethal proteins by mice cells; inoculated mice died

B. Heat-killed S cells were revived by the R cells; inoculated mice died

C. Some R cells absorbed the DNA from the heat-killed S cells; inoculated mice died

D. There was no change as compared with the control; all survived

E. Capsule from the heat-killed S cells induced a strong mouse immune response; all mice survived

Some R cells absorbed the DNA from the heat-killed cells; inoculated mice died

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41

Most scientists accepted that genes were composed of what?

genes were composed of DNA

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42

What two nitrogenous bases are purines?

adenine and guanine

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43

What two nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines?

thymine and cytocine

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44

Chargaff's Rule

distinguishing between which two nitrogenous bases were either purines or pyrimidines

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45

What did Rosalind Franklin analyze at King's College?

analyzed DNA with X-ray crystallography

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46

Franklin's results

Helical molecule

Turn every 3.4 nm

Diameter of 2.0 nm

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47

X-ray crystallography diagram

<p></p>
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48

Watson & Crick determined what with DNA?

DNA was a double helix without performing any independent experiments

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49

What data did Watson & Crick use to build models of DNA helix?

alpha helix, width & no. bases per turn, purine = pyrimidines

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50

How did knowing 3D structure of DNA help biologists?

understand DNA replication and transcription

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51

How did purine and purine fit together?

wide fit

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52

How did pyrimidine and pyrimidine fit together?

narrow fit

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53

What were purine and pyrimidine consistent with?

consistent with X-ray diffraction data

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54

How many rings did pyrimidines have?

1-ring

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55

How many rings do purines have?

2-rings

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56

DNA is ____ chains of nucleotides

2 chains

<p>2 chains</p>
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57

Structure of DNA

Pentose sugar, phosphate group, base

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58

How is DNA synthesized?

connecting the sugars of one nucleotide to the phosphate of the next

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59

How do the sugars connect when DNA is being synthesized?

connects via phosphodiester link/bond

<p>connects via phosphodiester link/bond</p>
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60

Is Uracil a purine or pyrimidine

pyrimidine

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61

Does DNA contain thymine or uracil?

thymine

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62

Does RNA contain thymine or uracil?

uracil

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63

What bonds are used to pair nitrogenous bases?

H bonds

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64

Which nitrogenous base pairs with thymine?

adenine

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65

Which nitrogenous base pairs with cytosine?

guanine

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66

What are antiparallel strands?

two strands of DNA that run in opposite directions

5' to 3'

3' to 5'

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67

Who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine in 1962?

Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins

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68

What year did Rosalind Franklin die?

1958

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69

Which antiparallel are DNA sequences always written?

5' to 3'

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70

What did Hershey and Chase discover?

Bacteriophage T2

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71

What was the function of Bacteriophage T2?

Infects E. coli

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72

What were the two groups of phage?

protein and DNA

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73

How was protein labeled in Bacteriophage T2?

labeled with (superscript) 35S

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74

How was DNA labeled in Bacteriophage T2?

labeled with (superscript) 32P

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75

What did the Henry Chase experiment conduct?

to see which part of the phage (DNA or protein) serves as the genetic material and is transmitted to phage progeny?

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76

What was the result of the Henry Chase experiment?

DNA is genetic material in bacteriophages

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77

What was determined in the life cycle of the T2 bacteriophage?

DNA is the molecule of inheritance. Bacteriophage was put into the E.coli, the virus spread within the E. coli, then virus busted out of E. Coli.

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78

Paradigm Shift (merriam webster)

An important change that happens when the usual way of thinking about or doing something is replaced by a new and different way

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79

Paradigm shift (Cambridge Dictionary)

A time when the usual and accepted way of dong or thinking about something changes completely

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80

What was the role of bacterial cells in the Henry Chase Experiment?

role = pellet

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81

What was the role of the phage in the Henry Chase Experiment?

role = supernatant

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82

100s of thousands of ____ are available at the Joint Genome Institution

genomes

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83

Define Genome

the entre set of DNA found in a cell

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84

What is inside a genome?

chromosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, prokaryotic extrachromosomal elements

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85

What is within prokaryotic extrachromosomal elements

plasmids, transposons, integrons, borgs

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86

How many bacterial and archaeal genomes have been sequenced?

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87

Have these 200k microbes been grown in the lab?

no

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88

What percentage of all prokaryotic genomes have been sequenced?

2.1%

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89

How many bp & genes does E. coli have?

E. coli has 4,641,652 bp and 4419 genes

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90

There's a lot of ____ in the prokaryotic world

diversity

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91

Prokaryotic genome size varies tremendously

490,000 bp (smallest) - 9,105,828 bp (largest)

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92

# of genes varies too

480 (smallest) - 9600 (largest)

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93

What do smaller prokaryotic genomes associate?

obligate symbionts, near-obligate and obligate parasites have smaller genomes

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94

Nanoarchaeum lives within or ____ to Ignicoccus, another archaeon

adjacent

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95

How many bp and genes do Nanoarchaeum have?

Nanoarchaeum has 491000 bp and 536 genes

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96

How many bp and genes do Ignicoccus have?

Ignicoccus has 1297583 bp and 1434 genes

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97

Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Treponema pallidum (syphilis): cannot ____ without a host in nature

survive

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98

bp and gene of Chlamydia

Chlamydia has 1,042,519 bp and 902 genes

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99

bp and gene of Treponema (syphilis)

Syphilis has 1,138,011 bp and 1082 genes

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100

Obligate symbionts, near-obligate and obligate parasites are missing genes and are dependent upon host for common components:

lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, enzymes for cell wall synthesis and citric acid cycle

<p>lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, enzymes for cell wall synthesis and citric acid cycle</p>
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