Microbiology Exam 4

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Exogenous electron acceptor (fermentation or respiration?)

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1

Exogenous electron acceptor (fermentation or respiration?)

Respiration

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2

Pyruvate or derivative as electron acceptor (fermentation or respiration?)

Fermentation

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3

Fermented foods

Chocolate, dairy products, meat products, vegetables and vegetable products, and yeast bread

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4

Fermentation in food used for...

Food preservation

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5

Fermentation in food may involve...

A succession of microbes

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6

Fermentation in food is a ___ process

Self-limiting

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7

Self-limiting process

Fermentation products inhibit fermenters

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8

Fermentation in food changes ___ of the food

The flavor, odor, and texture

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9

Dairy products are fermented using ___ bacteria

Lactic acid (LAB)

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10

Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria

Acid-tolerant, aerotolerant, Gram-positive, non-spore forming, and strictly fermentative

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11

Examples of lactic acid bacteria genus

Lactobacillus, lactococcus, leuconostoc, and streptococcus

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12

Probiotics in yogurt are not necessarily...

The fermentative bacteria

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13

Probiotics

Live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host

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14

Sources of probiotics

Dietary supplements, fermented food, and non-oral supplements

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15

Prebiotics

Substances (such as food) that promote the growth of probiotics

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16

Probiotics must have ___ in order to survive inside one's body

Prebiotics

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17

Can protect probiotics against stomach acid

Fat in yogurt

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18

Pros of probiotics (5)

Considered safe for healthy individuals (nonpathogens), immunomodulation, improve general intestinal balance and health, improve oral health, and may lower blood pressure and serum cholesterol

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19

How can probiotics improve general intestinal balance and health? (5)

Anticancer effects, colonization resistance, control of diarrhea, improve lactose intolerance, and treatment of enteric disease

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20

Area of immunomodulation

Intestines

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21

Cons of probiotics (3)

Difficult to accurately assess effectiveness, may cause mild side effects and systemic infection in severely immunocompromised individuals, and not regulated by FDA

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22

Why is the effectiveness of probiotics difficult to accurately assess?

Each individual and each probiotic is different

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23

How can the fact that probiotics are not regulated by the FDA be problematic?

Misleading advertising, most yogurts have relatively low CFU counts, and voluntary "Live Active Culture" seal

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24

Voluntary "Live Active Culture" seal at time of...

Manufacture

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25

Probiotics may becomes ___ in severely immunocompromised individuals

Opportunistic pathogens

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26

Alcoholic beverages produced by...

Yeast from fermentation of sugar to CO2 and ethyl alcohol

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27

Production of alcoholic beverages begins with...

Formation of liquid containing carbohydrates in readily fermentable form

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28

Wine

Fermentation of grape juice

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29

Beer

Fermentation of malted grain

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30

Distilled beverages

Distillation of fermented solutions

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31

Distilled beverages to make...

More concentrated alcohol

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32

The science of wine production

Enology

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33

Steps of wine production (4 - in order)

Must preparation, fermentation, aging, and racking

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34

Steps of must preparation (2 - in order)

Grapes are crushed to yield must, must treated with sulfur dioxide fumigant, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae or S. elliposideus added

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35

Types of wine fermentation

Primary and secondary

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36

Primary wine fermentation

3-5 days at 20-28 degrees C

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37

Secondary wine fermentation

1-3 weeks at ~20 degrees C

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38

Secondary wine fermentation is also called...

Malolactic wine fermentation

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39

Wine aging allows...

Bitter components to dissipate

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40

Racking removes...

Sediment during fermentation

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41

Alcohol content of wine

10-14%

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42

How is sweet wine produced?

Fermentation is stopped before the fermentation of sugar can occur

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43

How is sparkling wine produced?

CO2 byproduct is trapped

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44

First two steps of ale and beer production (in order)

Mash and wort

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45

Mashing

Process used to release fermentable sugars from grains

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46

How to yield mash

Activation of enzymes and germination of grains to yield malt, and malt transferred to mash tun and mixed with water

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47

Steps of wort production

Mash heated with hops in brew kettle and then hops are removed

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48

Purpose of hops

Assist in clarification (i.e., serves as an antimicrobial) and provide flavor

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49

Heating of mash to produce wort...

Inactivates hydrolytic enzymes

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50

Wort

Clear liquid containing fermentable carbohydrates

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51

Latter four steps of ale and beer production (in order)

Wort pitched, fermentation, storage, and bottling

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52

Pitch

To inoculate wort with desired yeast

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53

Types of yeasts used to pitch wort

Bottom yeast and top yeast

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54

Bottom yeast

Sit on bottom and used in production of lager beers

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55

Lagering

Storage (of ale and beer)

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56

Top yeast

Float to top and used in production of ales

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57

More CO2 (bottom yeast or top yeast?)

Top yeast

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58

More foam (bottom yeast or top yeast?)

Top yeast

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59

Higher pH (bottom yeast or top yeast?)

Bottom yeast

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60

Fermentation of lager beer

7-12 days at 6-12 degrees C

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61

Fermentation of ale

5-7 days at 14-23 degrees C

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62

Usually added at bottling of ale and beer

CO2

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How is CO2 added at bottling of ale and beer?

Using sugar

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64

At bottling, beer can be...

Pasteurized or sterilized by filtration

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65

Alcohol content of ale and beer

2-25%

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66

Not supposed to be aged

Ale

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67

Supposed to be consumed warm

Ale

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68

Scotch

Whiskey made in Scotland

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69

Bourbon

Whiskey made in Kentucky that is 25-50% corn

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70

Extension of beer-making process

Whiskey

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71

Distilled spirits

Liquor

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72

Whiskey and bourbon begin with...

Sour mash

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73

Sour mash (of whiskey and bourbon) is inoculated with...

Homolactic bacteria

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74

Following fermentation, sour mash (of whiskey and bourbon) is...

Distilled to concentrate alcohol

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75

Color of fresh distillate

Colorless

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76

Color development of distillate occurs during...

Aging

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77

Virus

Genetic elements that replicate independently of a cell's chromosome but require a living host in order to reproduce

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78

Viruses are ___ parasites

Obligate intracellular

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79

Viruses infect ___ cell types

All

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80

Viruses are ___ infectious agents

Acellular

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81

Viruses contain...

DNA or RNA

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82

DNA or RNA segments in viruses

Circular, double or single stranded, linear, or segmented

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83

Extracellular form of a virus

Virion

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84

Virion

The complete virus particle

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85

Virion composed of...

Nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat and possibly external layers

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86

Virion size range

10-2300 nm in diameter

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87

Virion contains...

Nucleocapsid

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88

Nucleocapsid

Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) + protein coat (capsid) (some have additional components)

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89

Types of virus symmetry

Complex, helical, and icosahedral

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90

Purpose of nucleocapsid

Protect the nucleic acid

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91

Capsomeres

Protein subunits that make up capsid

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92

Helical symmetry

Virus RNA coiled and surrounded with capsomeres

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93

Icosahedral symmetry

Geometric shape

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94

Types of complex symmetry

Binal and vaccinia

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95

Example of binal symmetry

T4 bacteriophage

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96

Why is binal symmetry called binal symmetry?

Has both helical and icosahedral symmetry

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97

Even though viruses are not living, they are still classified using...

Genus and species

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98

Capsid = ___ symmetry

Helical

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99

Types of ssRNA viruses

Negative sense and positive sense

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100

Positive sense viruses

Genome and mRNA are the same, plus strand, and positive

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