All (?) Biology Defs

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Biology

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Biology

12th

297 Terms

1

Biology

Is the study of living things.

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2

The scientific method

is the process of investigation in which problems are identified and their suggested solutions are tested by carrying out experiments.

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3

An observation

Is when something is noticed.

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4

A hypothesis

Is an educated guess.

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5

An experiment

Is designed to test a hypothesis.

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6

Data

Consists of the MEASUREMENTS, OBSERVATIONS or INFORMATION GATHERED from experiments.

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7

A conclusion

Is a summary of the results of an experiment.

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8

A theory

Is a hypothesis that has been SUPPORTED by many different experiments.

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9

A principle or law

Arises from a theory that has been shown to be VALID when FULLY TESTED over a long period of time.

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10

A variable

Is a factor that may change in an experiment.

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11

A control

is used to provide a comparison against which the actual experiment is being tested.

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12

A replicate

Is a repeat of an experiment, under the same conditions.

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13

Double blind

Means that both the investigator and the participant are unaware of the nature of the treatment the participant is receiving.

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14

Ethics

Relates to whether conduct is right or wrong.

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15

An Organism

Is a living thing.

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16

Metabolism

Is the sum of all chemical reactions in an organism.

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17

Continuity of life

Means that living things arise from other living things of the same type.

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18

Life

Is defined as the possession of these five characteristics: organisation, nutrition, excretion, response, reproduction.

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19

Organisation

Means that living things are composed of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

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20

Nutrition

Is the way living things get and use food FOR ENERGY.

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21

Exrection

Is the removal of waste products of METABOLISM.

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22

Response

is the way living things REACT to changes in their environment.

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23

Reproduction

Is the production of new individuals.

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24

Sexual Reproduction

Involves the union of sex cells.

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25

Asexual Reproduction

Dose not involve the union of sex cells.

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26

Biomolecules

Are the chemicals that are made inside a living thing.

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27

Phospholipids

Are fat-like substances in which one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group or has a phosphate group added to it.

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28

Anabolic reactions

The USE energy to convert smaller molecules into larger molecules.

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29

Catabolic reactions

The RELEASE energy when a complex molecule is broken down to a simpler form.

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30

Cytoplasm

Is the living material in a cell outside the nucleus.

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31

Transmission Electron Microscope

Shows the internal structure of a specimen.

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32

Scanning Electron Microscope

Shows a surface view of a specimen.

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33

Cell ultra-structure

Is the fine detail of a cell as seen with an electron microscope.

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34

Chromatin

Is the name given to chromosomes when they are elongated and not dividing.

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35

Hydrophilic

Water loving.

<p>Water loving.</p>
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36

Hydrophobic

Water hating.

<p>Water hating.</p>
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37

Prokaryotic cells

Do not have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. e.g. bacteria cells.

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38

Eukaryotic cells

Have a Nucleus and membrane bound organelles. e.g. animal and plant cells.

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39

Tissue

Are groups of similar cells that have the same structure and function.

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40

Micropropogation

Is the growth of new plants from plant cells.

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41

Callus

A group of cells.

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42

Tissue culture

Is the growth of new cells in or on a sterile nutrient medium outside the organism.

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43

Monoclonal antibodies

Cancer treatment antibodies.

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44

In vitro

Outside of the body.

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45

Organ

Is a structure composed of a number of different tissues that work together to carry out one or more functions.

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46

Organ system

Consists of a number of Organs working together to carry out one or more functions.

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47

Organism

A group of organ systems working together to allow life.

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48

Diffusion

Is the spreading of gas molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. (Passive Process)

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49

Osmosis

Is the movement of water molecules from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration across a selectively permeable membrane. (Passive Process)

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50

A selectively permeable membrane

Allows some but not all molecules through.

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51

Hypertonic

Water concentration is higher inside than outside the cell.

<p>Water concentration is higher inside than outside the cell.</p>
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52

Isotonic

Water concentration is the same inside and outside the cell.

<p>Water concentration is the same inside and outside the cell.</p>
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53

Hypotonic

Water concentration is higher outside the cell than inside the cell.

<p>Water concentration is higher outside the cell than inside the cell.</p>
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54

Protoplasm

Is all the living parts of a cell.

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55

Turgor or Turgor pressure

Is the OUTWARD pressure of the cytoplasm and vacuole AGAINST the cell wall of the plant.

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56

Cell continuity

Means that cells develop from pre-existing cells.

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57

Chromosomes

Are COILED THREADS of DNA and protein.

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58

A gene

Is a section of DNA that contains the instructions to make a protein.

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59

A diploid Cell

Has two sets of chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father. (2n)

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60

A homologous Pair

is two chromosomes of similar size, with the same sequence of genes.

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61

Haploid cells

Have one set of chromosomes. (n)

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62

Interphase

Is the phase in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing.

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63

A centromere

Is the point where chromosomes attach.

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64

Mitosis

Is a form of nuclear division in which one nucleus divides into two nuclei, each containing identical sets of chromosomes.

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65

Cancer

Is a group of disorders in which certain cells lose their ability to control both the rate of mitosis and the number of times it happens.

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66

Meosis

Is the form of nuclear division in which 4 daughter nuclei contain half the number of parent chromosomes.

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67

Micro-organisms

Are small living things.

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68

Autotrophic

Means an organism makes its own food.

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69

Chemosynthesis

Is the production of food using energy released from chemical reactions.

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70

Photosynthetic

Describes bacteria that make their own food using light energy.

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71

Heterotrophic

Means an organism takes in food made by other organisms.

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72

Saprophytes

Are organisms that take in food from dead organic matter.

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73

Parasites

Are organisms that take in food from a live host and usually cause harm.

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74

Pathogenic Bacteria

Are bacteria that cause disease.

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75

Antibiotics

Are chemicals produced by micro-organisms that stop the growth of, or kill other micro-organisms without damaging human tissue.

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76

Batch Culture

Is the cell growth of cells in a sealed container, or bioreactor, over a short period of time under ideal conditions until all the nutrients are used up.

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77

A Bioreactor

Is a vessel or container in which living cells or their products are used to make a product.

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78

Continuous Flow

Food processing is the growth of cells in an open container, or bioreactor, where nutrients are added and the end products are removed all the time at a rate that maintains the volume of liquid and the number of cells.

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79

Aerobic Bacteria

Use oxygen

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80

Anaerobic Bacteria

Do not use oxygen

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81

Hypha

Is a tube or filament in a fungus.

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82

Mycelium

Is a visible mass of hyphae.

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83

Obligate parasite

Can only take it's food from a live host.

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84

Facultative parasite

Can get its food from a live or dead host.

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85

Sporulation

Is the process of making spores.

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86

Meristem

Is a plant tissue capable of mitosis.

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87

Herbaceous plants

do not contain wood (lignin)

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88

Woody plants

contain wood (lignin)

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89

Node

Is the point of a stem at which the leaf is attached

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90

internode

is the region on a stem between two nodes

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91

bud

is a potential growth point which may develop into a shoot, a leaf or flower

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92

lenticel

is an opening on a stem for gas exchange

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93

venation

is the pattern of veins in a leaf

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94

Lignin

is a strengthening material found in some plant cell walls

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95

cotyledon

is a seed leaf

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96

Plasma

Is the liquid part of the blood

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97

Serum

Is plasma with the blood clotting proteins removed.

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98

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells

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99

Lymphocytes

White blood cells that produce antibodies

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100

Monocytes

White blood cells that engulf pathogens.

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