CS Midterm 2023

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114 Terms

1

program

set of instructions that a computer follows to perform a task

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2

software

what programs are referred to as

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3

programmer/software developer

a person with the skills necessary to design, creat, and test computer programs

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4

Hardware

the physical components of a computer

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5

Central Processing Unit

part of the computer that runs programs or software

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6

microprocessors

tiny chips that are used as CPUs today

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7

control unit

one of two parts of the CPU, coordinates all of the computer’s operations

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8

logic unit (ALU)

one of two parts of CPU, designed to perform mathematical operations

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9

Fetch

the CPU’s control unit fetches the next instruction in order from the main memory

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10

Decode

The instruction is encoded as a number, the control unit decodes the instructions

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11

Execute

the signal is routed to a component and the signal causes the component to perform an operation

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12

Random Access Memory (RAM)

main memory, where the computer stores a program while it is running, usually volatile

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13

Volatile Memory

only used for temporary storage while a program is running

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14

bytes

what a computer’s memory is divided into

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15

Bit

each byte is divided into 8 bits, standing for binary digit

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16

Secondary Storage

type of memory that can hold data for long periods of time, where programs are usually stored

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17

disk drive, solid-state drives

common secondary storage devices

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18

memory cards, USB

external storage devices

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19

CD, DVD

optical devices that are popular for data storage

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20

Input

any data the computer receives from the outside world

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21

input device

device that collects the information and sends it to the computer, keyboards, mouse, touch screen, scanner

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22

Output

any information the computer sends to the outside world

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23

Output Device

formats and presents output, computer screens, printers, speakers

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24

Operating system

the most fundamental set of programs on a computer

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25

Utility programs

performs a specialized task that enhances the computer’s operation data

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26

Software development tools

the tools programmers use to creat, modify, and test software

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27

application software

programs that make a computer useful for everyday tasks

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28

Algorithm

set of well-defined steps for performing a task or solving a problem

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29

machine language

sequence of binary numbers which the CPU interprets as commands

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30

Programming languages

use words instead of numbers to program

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31

low-level language

close to the level of the computer, resembles numeric language

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32

high-level language

easiest language for people to understand

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33

portability

can be written on one computer and run on many other types of systems

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34

text editor

similar to a word processing program, used to write code

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35

source code

statements written by the programmer

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36

source file

file the code is saved in

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37

preprocessor

reads the source code and looks for #

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38

directives

cause the preprocessor to amend or process the source code in some way

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39

compiler

steps through the preprocessed source code translating the source code instructions into the appropriate machine language instruction

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40

syntax errors

illegal uses of key words, operators, punctuation, and other language elements

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41

object code

translated machine language instructions

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42

object file

where the object code is stored

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43

run-time library

collection of code in C++ that contains hardware-specific code

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44

linker

combines the object file with the necessary library routines

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45

executable file

contains the machine language instructions and is ready to run on the computer

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46

executable code

machine language instructions

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47

Key Words

words that have special meaning and can only be used for their intended purpose

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48

Programmer-Defined identifiers

words defined by the programmer

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49

operators

perform operations on one or more operand

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50

punctuation

mark the beginning or end of a statement or separate items in a list

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51

Syntax

rules that must be followed when constructing a program

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52

line

a single line as it appears in the body of a program

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53

statement

complete instruction that causes the computer to perform some action

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54

variable

a named storage location in the computer’s memory for holding a piece of data

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55

variable definition

the type of variable along with its name

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56

three-step process

gathering input, performing some process, producing output

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57

top-down design

dividing your problems into small problems and solving them one by one

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58

flowchart

a diagram that shows the logical flor of a program

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59

Pseudocode

cross between human language and a programming language

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60

Logic errors

mistakes that cause a program to produce incorrect results

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61

desk-checking

the programmer starts reading the program and steps through each statement by hand

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62

function

group of one or more programming statements that has a name

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63

stream object

works with streams of data

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64

stream-insertion operator

the item is inserted into the output stream

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65

escape sequence

a backslash followed by a control character, used to control the way output is displayed

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66

assignment statement

assigns a value to a variable

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67

assignment operator

=

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68

literal

a piece of data written directly into a program’s code

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69

identifier

a programmer-defined name that represents some element of a program

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70

Legal Identifiers

the first character must be A-Z, after that any letter, numbers or underscore can be used

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71

short int

2 bytes

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72

unsigned short int

2 bytes, positive only

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73

int

4 bytes

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74

unsigned int

4 bytes, positive only

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75

long int

4 bytes

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76

unsigned long int

4 bytes, positive only

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77

long long int

8 bytes

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78

unsigned long long int

8 bytes, positive only

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79

float

4 bytes, single precision

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80

double

8 bytes, double precision

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81

long double

8 bytes, long double precision

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82

null character or null terminator

marks the end of the string

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83

boolean expressions

have a true or false value

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84

true

1

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85

false

0

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86

scope

the part of the program a variable can be used

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87

Unary operators

only require a single operand (-5)

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88

negation operator

the minus sign when used in front of a number

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89

binary operators

work with two operands

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90

Ternary operators

require three operands

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91

prompt

lets the user know that an input is expected

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92

stream extraction operator

extras characters from the input stream so they can be used in the program

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93

input/keyboard buffer

an area in memory where characters from the keyboard are temporarily placed

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94

arguments

information being sent to a function

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95

relational expression

expressions comparing two values

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96

decision structure

allow statements to execute only under certain circumstances

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97

conditionally executred

performed only when a certain condition exists

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98

nested if

allows you to test more than one condition to determine which block of code should be executed

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99

loop

control structure that causes a statement to repeat

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100

pretest loop

tests its condition before each iteration

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