Cell Physiology Study Guide

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Fluidity

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103 Terms

1

Fluidity

Increases with temperature, unsaturated fatty acids, and short fatty acids

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2

Osmolality

Number of particles in solution per kg of solvent

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3

Fick's Law

Rate of molecule movement proportional to concentration gradient and inversely proportional to membrane thickness

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4

Cross-Bridge Cycling

ATP binding, hydrolysis, weak and strong cross-bridge formation, power stroke, and rigor state

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5

Striated Muscle

Muscle with sarcomeres and thin and thick filaments

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6

Carbohydrates

Component of plasma membrane

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7

Cholesterol

Regulates membrane fluidity based on temperature and concentration

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8

Fluid Phase Endocytosis

Non-selective movement of substances into the cell via vesicle

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9

Protein Synthesis

Begins on ribosomes and involves signal sequence, SRP, translocon, and cleavage

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10

Nucleus

Stores genetic information and regulates DNA and RNA

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11

Smooth ER

Involved in lipid synthesis and calcium storage

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12

Microtubules

Polar filaments involved in cell division and growth

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13

mRNA Degradation

Regulation of mRNA stability and degradation

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14

Water Distribution

Male TBW=60%, Female TBW=50%, ECF=40%, ICF=60%

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15

Osmolarity

Number of particles in solution per unit volume of solvent

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16

Bulk Electroneutrality

Equal number of positive and negative charges in solution

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17

Secondary Active Transport

Energy from existing gradients used to move solutes against gradient

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18

Countertransporters

Move solutes against concentration gradient in opposite direction

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19

Pore

Large nonselective channel in plasma membrane

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20

Skeletal Muscle

Multinucleated muscle with motor units and sarcomeres

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21

Ca Activation

Calcium binds to troponin, exposing actin binding site

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22

Pharmacological Agents

Tetanus toxin, botulinum toxin, dendrotoxin, etc. affecting synaptic transmission

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23

MLCK

Phosphorylates myosin light chains in smooth muscle

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24

Claude Bernard

Proposed the two milieu: interior and exterior

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25

Homeostasis

Control of vital parameters at multiple levels

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26

Negative Feedback

Mechanism of homeostasis involving sense, compare, amplify, and effect

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27

Equilibrium

System in balance with zero net force and no energy required

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28

Steady-State

System with non-zero net force and energy required to maintain

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29

Milieu

Internal and external environment

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30

Sense

Detection of vital parameter

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31

Compare

Comparison of input and internal set point

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32

Amplify

Increase effect via output signal

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33

Effect

Output signal to counteract input signal

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34

Phospholipids

Component of plasma membrane

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35

Cholesterol

Component of plasma membrane that regulates fluidity

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36

Sphingolipids

Component of plasma membrane

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37

Proteins

Function as receptors, transporters, enzymes, etc. in plasma membrane

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38

Peripheral Proteins

Category of membrane proteins

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39

Integral Proteins

Category of membrane proteins

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40

Receptor Mediated Endocytosis

Selective movement of target molecules into the cell via ligand-receptor binding

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41

Golgi Apparatus

Stores and modifies proteins

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42

Rough ER

Studded with ribosomes, involved in protein translation and calcium storage

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43

Lysosome

Contains degenerative enzymes and has highly acidic interior

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44

Mitochondria

Involved in TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and apoptosis

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45

Cytoskeleton

Provides structure, adhesion, support, and motility

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46

Constitutive Pathway

Unregulated secretion of membrane proteins or constantly needed proteins

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47

Regulated Pathway

Highly regulated secretion of hormonal or neural signals

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48

Intermediate Filaments

Provide tensile strength and form adhesion plaques and desmosomal junctions

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49

Thin Filaments

Polar filaments involved in polymerization and ATP hydrolysis

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50

Thick Filaments

Filaments with helical tails and globular heads involved in force generation

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51

Gap Junctions

Channels between cells made of connexins for rapid signal propagation

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52

Tight Junctions

Watertight seals between adjacent cells, found in epithelial tissues

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53

Adhering Junctions

Connect cells to actin filaments and extracellular matrix

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54

Desmosomes

Connect cells and organize intermediate filaments

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55

Endocrine Signaling

Signal secreted into blood and carried to target organs or tissues

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56

Paracrine Signaling

Signal secreted by neighboring cell in vicinity of target cell

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57

Autocrine Signaling

Cell signaling itself

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58

Juxtacrine Signaling

Direct contact between signaling cell and receiving cell

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59

G alpha S

Stimulatory intercellular signaling molecule that activates adenylate cyclase

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60

G alpha I

Inhibitory intercellular signaling molecule that blocks adenylate cyclase

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61

G alpha q

Intercellular signaling molecule that activates PLC beta

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62

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

Ligand binding causes receptor dimerization and downstream signaling

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63

Nuclear Receptor

Contains hydrophobic AAs or sterol nucleus, functions as transcription factor

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64

Central Dogma

DNA to RNA to Protein

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65

Chromatin Remodeling

Alteration in chromatin structure to regulate gene expression

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66

Transcription Factors

Regulate DNA transcription, including TFIID and Pol II

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67

Post Translational Modification

Splicing, capping, cleavage, and polyA tail addition to mRNA

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68

Nucleocytoplasmic Transport

Movement of RNA and proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm

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69

Effective Osmolyte

Non-permeant solute that drives water movement

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70

Tonicity

Effective osmolality that determines water movement

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71

Osmotic Pressure

Pressure created by osmotic gradient that drives water movement

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72

Oncotic Pressure

Osmotic pressure generated by proteins in plasma

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73

Hydrostatic Pressure

Pressure exerted by stationary fluid

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74

Primary Active Transport

ATP used to move solutes against concentration gradient

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75

Passive Transport

No ATP used, solutes move down concentration gradient

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76

Na/K Pump

Active transport of Na and K ions to maintain osmotic equilibrium

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77

Cotransporters

Move solutes against concentration gradient in same direction

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78

Channel

Selective channel that opens with ligand or voltage

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79

Carrier

Selective channel that opens at one side and can be active transporter

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80

Epithelial Transport

Movement of ions across epithelium via voltage and chemical gradients

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81

Sarcomere

Contractile unit of skeletal muscle with thin and thick filaments

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82

Thin Filaments

Actin filaments with tropomyosin and troponin complexes

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83

Thick Filaments

Myosin filaments with heads for cross-bridge cycling

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84

ECC of Skeletal Muscle

Depolarization-induced Ca2+ release and termination of contraction

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85

Smooth Muscle

Innervated by autonomic nervous system, with multiunit and unitary innervation

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86

Smooth Muscle Cross-Bridge Cycle

MLCK phosphorylates myosin light chains to activate contraction

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87

ECC of Smooth Muscle

Calcium binds to calmodulin, activates MLCK, and triggers contraction

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88

Vasodilation

Caused by lack of O2, excess CO2, low pH, adenosine, etc.

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89

Vasoconstriction

Caused by increased Ca, norepinephrine, angiotensin, etc.

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90

Cardiac Muscle

Striated muscle with syncytium and ECC involving CICR

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91

ECC of Cardiac Muscle

AP triggers opening of voltage gated Ca channels and CICR

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92

Digitalis

Increases force of contraction by blocking Na/K ATPase

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93

Electrical Synapse

Gap junctions for immediate bidirectional communication

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94

Chemical Synapse

NT release and binding to receptors for communication

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95

Vesicle Fusion Proteins

V-snare, T-snare, synaptotagmin, Rab3, Sec-1, and Munc 18

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96

Ionotropic Receptor

Ligand-gated ion channel for fast signaling

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97

Metabotropic Receptor

G protein-coupled receptor for slower signaling

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98

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

Pentameric receptors at motor endplate for muscle contraction

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99

Mini EPP

Spontaneous small depolarization due to release of single vesicle of NTs

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100

Syncytium

Cells connected by gap junctions for coordinated contraction

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