BIOL 118 UNIT 1

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kidneys get rid of it as urine

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kidneys get rid of it as urine

bodily function to get rid of excess bicarbonate

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ketone

secreted into bloodstream to be used for cellular energy when blood glucose levels are low

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secondary structure

the local spatial arrangement of a polypeptide's backbone who’s structure is reinforced by Hydrogen bonds

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passive transport

small substances such as ions/molecules move between extracellular and intercellular space following natural gradient

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facilitated diffusion

passive movement of molecules across concentration gradient aided by transmembrane proteins

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channel mediated, carrier mediated

two types of facilitation diffusion

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osmosis

movement of water through aquaporin channel across lipid bilayer

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endocytosis

a type of active transport that moves large molecules, often macromolecules from extracellular into the intercellular space

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active transport

movement of molecules through protein pumps, requires energy

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glycolipid

lipid with sugar group attached which help with cell membrane stability and identification

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11

pancreas’s exocrine function

secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum

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12

E stored + E used for work + E lost(heat)

components of Energy balance

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13

epithelial tissue

Tissue type that covers exposed surfaces, lines internal passages/chambers, produces granular secretions

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14

connective tissue

tissue type that provides structural support, energy storage, fills/binds other tissues/organs

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muscle tissue

tissue type that contracts/relaxes to produce active movement

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neural tissue

tissue type that carries information and conducts electrical pulses

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atomic/molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

body structural organization from smallest to largest

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18

tissue

perform relatively simple tasks, distributed throughout the body, composed of cells

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19

organs

perform specialized specific tasks, have specific loci

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20

ingestion

voluntary mechanical taking in and breaking down of food

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propulsion

movement of food along digestive tract

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swallowing

voluntary propulsion

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peristalsis

involuntary contraction/relaxation of muscle tissue during digestion

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villi

small slender projections on the epithelial surface of the GI tract which increase SA

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Plicae

folds of the small intestine increasing SA

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mechanical digestion

physical breaking down of food into smaller chunks increasing SA:vol ratio

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chemical digestion

enzymes break chemical bonds of food

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Liver

organ whose main digestive function is to produce bile but also serves other important metabolic and regulatory roles

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Pancreas

only organ able to produce enzymes that can break down all digestible macromolecules

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digestion

breaking down large food molecules that can be later absorbed

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galbladder

stores bile and concentrates it through the removal of water when digestion isn’t occurring

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bile

acts as a support to mechanically separate lipids to aid lipase

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lipase

lipid enzyme

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34

nuclease

nucleic acid enzyme

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protase

protein enzyme

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amylase

carbohydrate enzyme

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chyme

composed of gastric juices and partially digested food

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duodenum

first part of small intestine where bile from gallbladder, digestive enzymes from pancreas, and stomach acid mix

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pancreatic ducts

route digestive enzymes travel to get to duodenum

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bile duct

route bile takes to get to small intestine

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emulsification

mechanical breaking down of lipids in order to aid chemical breakdown done by pancreatic enzymes

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segmentation

process of small intestine moving food back and fourth to mix with digestive juices

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absorbtion

products of digestion are transported from GI tract via active/passive transport to lymph/blood mucosal cells

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catabolism

metabolic step of chemical breakdown of complex molecules into smaller ones

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anabolism

metabolic step of synthesis of complex molecules

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urea, CO2, water

metabolic chemical waste

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Basal Metabolic Rate

measurement of the energy it takes to keep you and your tissues alive

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(BMR) organs

tissue that composes less than 6% of body but makes up 58% of BMR

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potential energy

energy stored in the bonds that can be used to do work

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50

heat (kinetic energy)

metabolic non chemical waste

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monomers

small molecules that can be produced by catabolism

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ATP synthase

enzyme that adds inorganic phosphate to ADP

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bonds between atoms

determine the behavior of a molecule

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monosaccharides disaccharides

two categories that make up simple sugars

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polysaccharides

categorization of complex sugars

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starches, cellulose(fiber), glycogen

these are polysaccharides

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glucose, fructose, galactose

these are monosaccharides

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lactose, maltose, sucrose

these are disaccharides

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carbohydrates

polar molecules whose structure consists of C rings and hydroxyl groups

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starch

complex carbohydrate with few branches in its structure

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cellulose(fiber)

complex carbohydrate which “links” together in chains of Carbon

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glycogen

complex carbohydrate made by humans with a highly branched structure

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free glucose(monomer)

preferred molecular form of carbohydrates that are distributed/used by the body

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glycogen(polymer)

preferred molecular form of carbohydrates that are used for storage

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fatty acids

lipid monomer

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triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids

lipid polymers

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carboxyl group with long CH chains

fat/lipid structural characteristics

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polar glycerol sugar backbone with three fatty acids

triglyceride structural characteristics

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unsaturated fats

fatty acids have C=C double binds creating a “kink”

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saturated fats

3 straight fatty acids that make up non polar end of triglyceride

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cholesterol

created by body from triglycerides, never used as fuel and serves mainly structural and functional purposes

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sex hormones, bile salts

two things made of cholesterol

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amphipathic

trait in which one part of a molecule is polar and another is non polar

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ketoacidosis

excess accumulation of ketones in blood due to reduced/ complete lack of insulin which overwhelms bodies buffer system and causes acidosis

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amino acids

monomer of proteins

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glycogenesis

process in which glucose molecules are removed from blood by liver and combined into glycogen

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glycogenolysis

break down of stored glycogen into free glucose molecules by liver to be used as energy by body

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glucogenesis

livers ability to make glucose from non carbohydrate substances such as lipids and proteins

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stimulus

first step: change that provokes a response

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receptor

second step: detects a change in body through cell signaling

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input

third step: information is sent along pathway to control center

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output

fourth step: info is sent to the effector

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effector

apart of step four and five of homeostasis, molecules that bind to receptor and trigger a response

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response

fifth step: effector reduces effect of stimulus and returns body back to normal

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negative feedback

bodily response whose feedback loop is the opposite of the stimuli in order to return body back to homeostasis

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positive feedback

bodily response that once an extreme level is reached, is unable to reverse it and instead accelerates change in same direction

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dynamic equilibrium

state of variable fluctuation around a normal range

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pancreas's endocrine function

secrete hormone signaling molecules which help regulate blood sugar levels

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glucagon

hormone produced by pancreas alpha cells

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insulin

hormone produced by pancreas beta cells

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91

hyperglycemia

BCL homeostasis interrupted by increasing blood glucose levels

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hypoglycemia

BCL homeostasis interrupted by decreasing blood glucose levels

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beta cells

act as receptors in the pancreas and secrete insulin

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alpha cells

act as receptors in the pancreas and secrete glucagon

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95

desmosomes

anchoring junctions that prevent cells who perform mechanical functions from coming apart, connect via button like thickenings of adjacent plasma membranes via protein filaments

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96

fluid mosaic model

visually depicts the structure of the cell membrane and its various functions

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glycoprotein

membrane proteins with a sugar group attached which serve as identifiers, adhesion, receptors, and identity

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98

nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane

3 generalized parts of animal cell

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nuclear envelope, chromatin, nucleolus

3 generalized regions of nucleus

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chromatin

condensed chromosomes wound around histone proteins

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