Bio Exam 7 Mizzou Schul

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move up in altitude

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Biology

134 Terms

1

move up in altitude

what are Andean hummingbirds likely to do in response to climate change

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2

low

what is the survival rate for an andean hummingbird at high altitude with high affinity Hb

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3

high

what is the survival rate for an andean hummingbird at mid altitude with high affinity Hb

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4

low

what is the survival rate for an andean hummingbird at mid altitude with low affinity Hb

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5

high

what is the survival rate for an andean hummingbird at low altitude with low affinity Hb

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6

great system to study questions

why does Dr. Schul study katydids even though he doesn’t care about katydids

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7

allows framework to discuss important biological concepts in context and make connections between them

why are we still talking about geese

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8

protein biology and synthesis, evolution by natural selection, phylogenies, genetics and mutations, respiratory systems

what are some of the biological concepts that were covered in the geese unit

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9

molecular

at which level of biological organization is: Hb

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10

molecular

at which level of biological organization is: Hb-O2 dissociation curve

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11

molecular

at which level of biological organization is: protein folding

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12

cellular

at which level of biological organization is: transcription and translation

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13

cellular

at which level of biological organization is: mutations

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14

cellular

at which level of biological organization is: gene families

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15

cellular

at which level of biological organization is: gene expression

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16

organismal

at which level of biological organization is: fetal development

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17

organismal

at which level of biological organization is: Hb-O2 binding

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18

organismal

at which level of biological organization is: bird and animal respiratory systems

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19

ecological

at which level of biological organization is: climate change impacts

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20

ecological

at which level of biological organization is: Mt. Everest Atmosphere

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21

evolutionary

at which level of biological organization is: convergent evolution

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22

evolutionary

at which level of biological organization is: high altitude Hb evolution

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23

evolutionary

at which level of biological organization is: speciation

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24

no

do viruses contain cellular machinery

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25

capsid

protein coat

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26

capsid

where is genetic material stored in a virus

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27

virion

viral particle

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28

no

can a virus reproduce by itself

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29

capsid size and shape, genetic material, envelope

what are the 3 features which help categorize viruses

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30

helical, spherical, head-tail

what are the three capsid shapes

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31

DNA v. RNA

Single v. Double Stranded

Positive v. Negative Sense

what are the three components of comparing genetic material in viruses

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32

positive sense

can be read directly

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33

negative sense

must be copied into its complimentary base

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34

go into capsids of next generation, allow virus to use cellular machinery

what functions are necessary for proteins coded for by viral genes

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35

presence/ absence

what are we comparing in relation to an envelope for a virus

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36

envelope

lipid bilayer around capsid

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37

attach to surface of cell often via receptor

what is step one of viral reproduction

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38

viral glycoproteins need to fit receptor on cell

what causes specificity for viruses for host species and cell type

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39

enter cell or inject viral genome into cell

what is step 2 of viral reproduction

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40

viral genes direct cell to produce viral proteins

what is step 3 of viral reproduction

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41

viral genes are copied into RNA then translated

what happens if the viral genome is DNA

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42

directly translated, transcribed from RNA to mRNA, reverse transcribed

what are the three options if the viral genome is RNA

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43

reverse transcription

RNA is transcribed into DNA which can enter the host’s genome

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44

viral proteins assembled into new virions

what is the fourth step of viral reproduction

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45

new virions leave cell

what is the fifth step of viral reproduction

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46

spherical

what shape is coronavirus

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47

yes

does coronavirus have an envelope

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48

yes

does coronavirus have glycoprotein spikes

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49

RNA

is the viral genome DNA or RNA in coronavirus

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50

positive sense

is the viral genome in coronavirus positive or negative sense

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51

birds and mammals

what are the hosts of coronavirus

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52

respiratory tract infections

what does coronavirus cause

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53

yes

does coronavirus have to jump species to reach humans?

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54

endocytotic pathway and receptor mediated fusion

what are the 2 pathways that SARS-CoV2 can enter cells

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55

endocytotic pathway

virus taken into endosome = membrane bound vesicle; virus fuses with endosome membrane, empties genome into host

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56

cathepsin

what modifies spike proteins to allow fusion with membrane

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57

receptor mediated fusion

bind to receptor on surface of cell, fuse with cell membrane, empty genes into host cell

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58

spike protein

what part of the virus binds to ACE2 receptors

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59

lungs and capillaries

where are the cells which have ACE2 receptors located

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60

yes

does the spike protein have to be modified for fusion with cell to occur

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61

bind to ACE2 receptors to allow entrance into the cell

what is the role of the spike protein

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62

ACE

makes ANG II

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63

increase BP and inflammation, damage tissues including alveoli and blood vessel linings

what does ANG II do?

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64

ACE2

breaks down ANG II

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65

lowers BP and protects tissues from damage

what does the breakdown of ANG II by ACE2 cause

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66

homeostasis

what does ACE and ACE2 allow for

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67

loss of ACE2

what does viruses cause in relation to homeostasis held by ACE and ACE2

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68

29

how many genes in viral genome

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69

4

how many structural protein genes in viral genome

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70

make up capsid of new virions

what do structural proteins do in viral genome

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71

25

how many nonstructural protein genes

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72

take over cell’s protein production and inhibit host’s immune system

what are the two major functions of nonstructural protein genes in viral genome

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73

open reading frame

a portion of DNA that contains no stop codons

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74

methylated cap

what can viruses add to camouflage themselves to a host’s immune system

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75

3

how many protein subunits are in the spike protein

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76

ACE2 receptors

what does the spike protein bind to

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77

open

strands are folded up on spike protein

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78

closed

strands are folded down on spike protein

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79

mutations

__________ can allow spike protein to bind more easily to ACE2 receptors

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80

shape

changes in ______ of proteins on surface of virus can allow virus to move from one species to the next

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81

immune system antibodies

mutation int the gene for the spike protein effects likelihood of tips being folded up and down which affects how well _______ _________________ can bind

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82

single base change

___________________ resulted in higher propensity for tips to be folded up

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83

can change in shape, open v. closed and relaxed v. tense state effect on binding

what are two commonalities between the spike protein and hemoglobin

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84

innate immune system

preconfigured responses to set of stimuli; all organisms have this

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85

immune sensing

part of innate immune system which detects molecules typical of pathogens or damaged cells and marks them with special molecules (cytokines)

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86

innate immune cells

identify and kill pathogens through phagocytosis and defend against multicellular parasites by secreting chemicals

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87

macrophages, leukocytes, natural killer cells

what are three types of immune cells

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88

natural killer cells

attack virus infected or tumor cells

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89

inflammation

increased blood flow, swelling, redness, heat, fever; release of interleukins and inferions, recruits immune cells to site of infection

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90

activator of acquired immune system

what is a major role that the innate immune system plays

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91

acquired immune system

learns to recognize pathogens (only in vertebrates)

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92

vaccines

acquired immune system is important for …

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93

4-6 days

how long does the acquired immune system take for a new pathogen

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94

memory cells

where does the acquired immune system store information for future infections to lead to a fast, strong response

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95

t cells

which kind of immune cells has killer cells

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96

b cells

which kind of immune cells produce antibodies that attach to antigen so it cannot attach

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97

b cells

which kind of immune cells have the potential to become a memory cell

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98

new infection

what activates acquired immune system

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99

mild or no symptoms

what are symptoms like for a secondary infection

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100

long term immunity

what can your acquired immune system help you to achieve

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