Bio sem 1 final

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The combined portions of the planet in which life

exists, including land, water, and the

atmosphere, form the

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Biology

10th

119 Terms

1

The combined portions of the planet in which life

exists, including land, water, and the

atmosphere, form the

biosphere

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2

A group of organisms that can breed and

produce fertile offspring is known as a(an)

species

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3

Compared to a community, an ecosystem

includes

the nonliving, physical environment as well

as the community.

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4

An ecological method that uses mathematical

formulas based on data collected is

modeling

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5

An ecologist marks out an area in a specific

ecosystem and proceeds to identify the number

of insect species in the area. This is an example

of ecological

observation

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6

The main source of energy for life on Earth is

sunlight

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7

Organisms that feed on plant and animal

remains and other dead matter are

detritivores

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8

How does a food web differ from a food chain?

A food web links many food chains together

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9

In a biomass pyramid, the base of the pyramid

represents the mass of

producers

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10

The amount of energy represented in each

trophic level of consumers in an energy pyramid

is about

10% of the level below it

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11

Transpiration is part of the

water cycle

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12

Carbon is found in the atmosphere in the form of

Carbon dioxide

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13

Biologists describe nutrients as moving through

cycles because the substances

are passed between organisms and the environment and then back to organisms.

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14

The only organisms that can convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into a form useful to living things are nitrogen-fixing

bacteria.

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15

When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, the result is

algae bloom

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16

Which of the following is a nonrenewable resource?

Fossil Fuels

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17

Which of the following is a sustainable-use strategy that can help prevent desertification?

Contour plowing

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18

The advantage of sustainable development is that it

provides for human needs without depleting natural resources.

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19

A mixture of chemicals that occurs as a haze in the atmosphere is known as

smog.

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20

Plowing the land removes the roots that hold the soil in place and increases the rate of

soil erosion

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21

The type of biodiversity that includes the inheritance information carried by the Earth’s organisms is called

genetic diversity.

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22

Populations of invasive species tend to

increase rapidly

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23

The wise management of natural resources, including the preservation of habitats and wildlife, is known as

conservation

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24

By focusing on protecting specific ecosystems, biologists hope to preserve

global biodiversity

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25

In a food pyramid, biological magnification results in the

increased amount of a toxic substance in organisms at the highest level

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26

An increase in the average temperature of the biosphere is called

global warming

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27

The geological record indicates that Earth’s climate has

repeatedly changed over its history

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28

A possible effect of global warming is

extinction of organisms in areas where they once thrived

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29

Depletion of Earth’s protective ozone layer results in

an increase in the amount of UV radiation that reaches the surface

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30

The most likely cause of ozone depletion is the

addition of chemicals developed for use in refrigeration and aerosol cans

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31

The Earth’s polar zones are cold because

at the poles, the sun's rays are at a very low angle

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32

The upward movement of warm air and the downward movement of cool air creates

air currents

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33

Earth's temperature range is maintained by

the greenhouse effect

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34

Variation of temperature in the temperate zone is due primarily to

latitude and season

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35

The tropical zone is warm all year long because

it receives direct or nearly direct sunlight year-round

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36

Which of the following is a biotic factor in a bullfrog's niche?

a heron

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37

An organism’s niche is different from its habitat because

the niche includes all the conditions under which the organism lives

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38

The attempt by organisms of the same or different species to use a resource at the same time in the same place is called

competition

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39

An association between two species in which one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed is called

commensalism

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40

When a volcano erupts and completely destroys an ecosystem, the first species to populate the area are usually

pioneers such as lichens

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41

When the climate in a small region of a biome is different from the overall climate of the biome, the region’s climate is called

microclimate

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42

The ability of an organism to survive under conditions that differ from its optimal condition is called

tolerance

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43

Which of the following biomes is characterized by less than 25 centimeters of annual precipitation?

desert

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44

Which of the following biomes is characterized by a mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees?

temperate forest

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45

Which of the following biomes is characterized by the presence of permafrost?

Tundra

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46

Population density is the number of individuals

per unit area

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47

When the birthrate of a population exceeds its death rate, the population

increases

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48

An S-shaped curve on a graph of population growth is characteristic of

logistic growth

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49

Exponential growth in a population slows down or stops as

resources become limited

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50

Exponential growth rate means that each new generation of a population

increases at the same rate as the previous generation.

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51

A limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways regardless of their size might be

drought

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52

Which of the following would be a limiting factor affecting the panda population of China?

a disease that kills bamboo plants

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53

Density-dependent factors operate most strongly when a population is

Large and dense

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54

Within a limited area, if the population of a predator increases, the population of its prey is likely to

decrease

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55

Which of the following is a density-independent factor affecting populations?

destructive hurricane

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56

ATP

adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that provides energy for cellular processes

Energy is released when an ATP molecule is converted to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule

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57

Bacteria

unicellular organisms that contain cell walls and ribosomes but do not contain a nuclear membrane around their genetic material or other organelles common to plant and animal cells.

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58

Carbon dioxide

a colorless, odorless gas that is produced during respiration and combustion (burning)

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59

cell

– the smallest structural and functional unit of all organisms that is said to be alive

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60

Cellular respirartion

a process by which energy is released from food

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61

Compound light microscope

an instrument used to magnify small objects. Two or more lenses (an eye piece and one of several objective lenses) collect light and bend it to create the larger image.

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62

Eukaryote

an organism in which the genetic material inside of cells is contained within a distinct nucleus

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63

Multicellular

consisting of many cells

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64

Muscle cell

a long, contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body. Muscle cells contract (shorten) and relax (lengthen) to produce movement

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65

Neuron

a cell that is able to transmit nerve impulses (signals) from one part of the body to another.

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66

Organelle

a cell structure that performs a specific function

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67

nucleus

an organelle that contains DNA and controls the cell by regulating when genes are turned on and off

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68

cell membrane

surrounds and protects the cell by regulating what can go in and out

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69

Photosynthesis

the process by which light energy is used to combine water and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and oxygen

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70

Prokaryote

single celled organisms that do not contain distinct nuclear membranes around their genetic material

Bacteria are these.

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71

Protist

eukaryotic organisms that are neither fungi, plants nor animals

Most are unicellular. Examples are amoeba, Paramecium and Euglena

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72

Red Blood Cell

a cell that uses hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells and tissues of the body. Red blood cells also carry carbon dioxide back to the respiratory organs

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73

Root Hair cell

a cell found in the roots of plants that absorbs water and nutrients from the soil

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74

Tissue

a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a specific function. o Together, several groups ____ can form an organ

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75

Unicellular

consisting of a single cell. _______ organisms include bacteria, microalgae, and most protists

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76

White Blood Cell

Cells in the blood that protect against invading pathogens. are part of the immune system

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77

Consumer

an organism that obtains energy by feeding on organic materials

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78

Organic materials

are carbon-based compounds produced by living things.

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79

Coral

a class of marine animals in the phylum Cnidaria that are important reef builders in tropical oceans

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80

Polyps of stony corals excrete exoskeletons of

calcium carbonate

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81

Coral bleaching

a process in which corals lose their zooxanthellae, usually as a result of abnormally high water temperatures

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82

Coral Reef

– a complex and diverse marine ecosystem formed on the exoskeletons secreted by stony corals

-occupy less than 1% of the world’s ocean floor but contain over 25% of all marine species

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83

Filter Feeder

an organism that eats by straining food, such as plankton, from water

-includes sponges, manta rays, whale sharks, baleen whales, barnacles, clams, flamingos, and many others

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84

Food Chain

a sequence of organisms in which each organism feeds on the one below.

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85

Food Web

a diagram that shows feeding relationships for a group of organisms

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86

Grazer

an organism that feeds by eating plants, algae, and other immobile organisms

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87

Nutrients

– substances used by an organism for energy, growth, or other processes essential to life.

Important in seawater include nitrates and phosphates.

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88

Ocean Acidification

a decrease in the pH of the ocean, caused by increased absorption of carbon dioxide from Earth’s atmosphere

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89

pH

– a measure of how many hydrogen ions there are in a solution. The greater the number of hydrogen ions is, the more acidic the solution and the lower

7 is neutral, below 7 is acidic, 7 is basic

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90

Plankton

small organisms that live suspended in ocean water

-produce energy from photosynthesis

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91

predator

an animal that kills and eats other animals

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92

Producer

an organism that converts simple inorganic matter (such as water and carbon dioxide) into organic matter (such as sugar and protein

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93

Sediments

rock fragments that have been transported to a different location

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94

Zooxanthellae

photosynthetic algae that live inside corals

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95

Biotic Factor

the living components that affect an ecosystem

-include disease-causing bacteria, invasive species, and humans

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96

Black band disease

a disease characterized by a narrow band of microorganisms that gradually spreads across a coral, completely destroying coral tissue as it moves

-mainly affects massive corals such as star corals and brain corals

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97

Invasive species

an introduced species that is harmful to native species

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98

White band Disease

a coral disease that generally proceeds from the base of the colony up toward the branch tips, destroying coral tissue as it goes.

-affects two branched coral species in the Caribbean: staghorn coral and elkhorn coral.

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99

Atmosphere

– the gases that surround a planet

  • Earth’s _____ consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (1%), and smaller amounts of other gases, including carbon dioxide and methane

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100

Biomass

the total mass of a group of living things

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