Chapter 25 Digestive System

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184 Terms

1

digestive system

Organ system processes food

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digestive tract

Tube runs from mouth to anus

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five functions of digestive system

Ingestion, digestion, absorption, compaction, defecation.

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ingestion

Selective intake of food

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digestion

Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food

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absorption

Uptake of nutrient molecules

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compaction

Absorbing water and consolidating indigestible residue

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defecation

Elimination of feces

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mechanical digestion

physical breakdown of food into smaller particles

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chemical digestion

series of hydrolysis reaction breaks into monomers

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monomers of polysaccharides

Monosaccharides.

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monomers of proteins

Amino acids

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monomers of fats

Monoglycerides and fatty acids

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monomers of nucleic acids

Nucleotides

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four layers of digestive tract

Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa.

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function of mucosa layer

Secretes mucus

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function of submucosa layer

Contains blood vessels lymphatic ducts.

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function of muscularis externa layer

Moves food through canal peristalsis and segmentation

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two types of muscles in muscularis externa

Circular longitudinal muscles

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20

third muscle of stomach

Oblique muscle

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circular muscles thicken form

Sphincters

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22

another name for digestive system

Digestive Tract

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23

serous membrane surrounding abdominopelvic organs

Peritoneum

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24

function of enteric nervous system

Coordinates digestive system activity

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25

enteric nervous system also known as

Gut Brain

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two networks of neurons in enteric nervous system

Submucosal plexus Myenteric plexus

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submucosal plexus controls

Glandular secretions of mucosa and movements of muscularis mucosae

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myenteric plexus controls

Peristalsis and muscularis externa

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mesenteries

Connective tissue sheets suspends stomach

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ventral mesentery lesser curvature of stomach to liver

Lesser omentum

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greater curvature of stomach cover small intestine

Greater omentum

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functions of mouth

sensory responses to food, chewing

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type of epithelium lines mouth

Stratified squamous epithelium

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covers surface of tongue

Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

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function of tongue

Manipulates food between teeth

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bumps and projections on the tongue

Lingual papillae

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role of lingual papillae

Sites of most taste buds

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Vallate papillae

V

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Palate

Roof of mouth

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Hard palate

Bony surface for mashing food

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Soft palate

Muscle closes off nasopharynx

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Uvula

Conical projection at back of mouth

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Deciduous teeth

Baby teeth (6

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Permanent teeth

Adult teeth (6

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Wisdom teeth

Third molars (17

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Incisors

Front teeth for cutting

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Canines

Pointed teeth for tearing

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Premolars

Bicuspids for grinding

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Molars

Large teeth for grinding

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Crown

Visible part of tooth above gum

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Root

Part of tooth below gum

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Neck

Point where crown, root, and gum meet

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Gingival sulcus

Space between tooth and gum

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Periodontal ligament

Anchors tooth in socket

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Dentin

Hard tissue that makes up most of tooth

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Enamel

Noncellular covering of crown

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Cementum

Covering of root

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Another name for chewing

mastication

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Mastication

breaking food into smaller pieces to be swallowed

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What manipulate food

tongue, buccinator, orbicularis oris

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elevates lower teeth to crush food

masseter and temporalis

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functions of salivary glands

Moistens mouth, begins starch

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What triggers salivation

Presence of food, tactile, pressure

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function of pharynx

Connects oral cavity to esophagus

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three phases of swallowing

Oral phase, pharyngeal phase, esophageal phase

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during oral phase of swallowing

Voluntary control, tongue forms bolus

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during pharyngeal phase of swallowing

Involuntary, soft palate rises, larynx moves upward

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during esophageal phase of swallowing?

Involuntary, bolus moves in esophagus, peristalsis

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function of upper esophageal sphincter

Prevents air from entering

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esophagus pass through diaphragm

Esophageal hiatus

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composition of esophagus

Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

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four regions of stomach

Pyloric, Fundus, Cardial, Body

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function of stomach

Food storage and mechanical chemical digestion

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chyme

soupy or pasty mixture of food in stomach

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role of mucosa in stomach

folded up forms rugae secretes mucus

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pyloric sphincter

joins the distal end of stomach with small intestine

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stomach protected from digesting itself

protective mucosal barrier

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three layers of the muscularis externa in stomach

Outer longitudinal, middle circular, and inner oblique layers

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cells found in gastric glands of stomach

Parietal cells, chief cells, mucous cells

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parietal cells secrete

Hydrochloric acid (HCl), intrinsic factor

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HCl important in stomach

activate pepsin, denature proteins, kills bacteria

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role of intrinsic factor

B12 absorption

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HCl produced in stomach

Carbonic acid parietal cells pumped into gastric gland lumen

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cell found in cardiac region of stomach

Cardiac glands

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cell found in pyloric region of stomach

Pyloric glands

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cell found in body region of stomach

Gastric glands

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chief cells secrete

Pepsinogen and gastric lipase.

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activates pepsinogen

Exposure to HCl or preexisting pepsin molecules.

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enteroendocrine cells found

Stomach glands.

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enteroendocrine cells release

Hormones into lamina propia.

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three phases of gastric activity

Cephalic phase, gastric phase, intestinal phase.

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happens in cephalic phase

Stomach is controlled by brain.

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triggers the cephalic phase

Stimuli

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How much stomach's acid secretion occurs in cephalic phase?

40%.

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happens in gastric phase

Stomach controls itself.

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parietal cells to increase HCl output in gastric phase

Stretch receptors in stomach.

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G cells to secrete gastrin in gastric phase?

Chemical stimuli

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gastrin target in gastric phase

Parietal cells to increase HCl production.

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happens in intestinal phase

Stomach is controlled by small intestine.

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activates enterogastric reflex in intestinal phase

Chyme entering duodenum

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