ch. 16

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WHAT ARE PATHOGENS?

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101 Terms

1

WHAT ARE PATHOGENS?

bacteria, viruses, fungi, or any foreign microorganism that can cause a disease within someone

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2

WHAT IS THE CISTERN CHYLI?

The Cisterna Chyli is the abdominal origin of the thoracic duct within the lymphatic system and it receives the bilateral lumbar lymphatic trunks

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3

WHAT CELLS FUNCTION AS PHAGOCYTIC?

Macrophages, neutrophils, NK Cells, and monocytes

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4

WHAT ARE THE REGIONS ARE CERVICAL LYMPH NODES FILTER?

These nodes are associated with the lymphatic vessels that drain the skin of the scalp and face, as well as the tissues of the nasal cavity and pharynx

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5

WHAT TYPE OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS ARTE INVOLVED IN TYPE I HYPERSENTITIVITY?

Type 1 Hypersensitivity

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6

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTION OF THE SPLEEN?

The spleen filters the blood, stores RBCs, conducts phagocytosis of worn out RBCs and foreign particles. It also helps produce lymphocytes and helps defend against infections 

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7

WHAT ARE THE TARGET OF CYTOTOXIC T CELLS?

Cancerous cells and Viruses

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8

WHAT IS THE CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE?

The T Cells interact directly with the antigens or antigen-bearing agents to destroy them

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9

GAMMA GLOBULINS WILL PROVIDE WHAT TYPE OF IMMUNITY?

Humoral Immunity Response

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10

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF IMMUNE RESISTANCE DO PEOPLE DEVELOP AFTER FIGHTING OFF AN INFECTIONS?

Active and passive immunity

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11

HOW DOES A VACCINE PRODUCE IT'S EFFECT?

A vaccine provides antigens of a specific pathogen to produce a primary immune response but not enough to produce symptoms

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12

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM?

The Lymphatic system functions as a secondary circulatory system that picks up the excess interstitial fluid within the body. It helps manage homeostatic balance and proper BP volume by returning the fluid to the cardiovascular system.

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13

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE FROM LYMP AND PLASMA?

Lymph does not have the Plasma Proteins. They are very similar in regards to hydrostatic pressure.

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14

What is the difference between a virus and a pathogen?

A pathogen is any organism, fungi, virus, or bacteria that can cause disease while a virus is a disease-causing agent that must have a living cell to replicate within. 

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15

HYPERSENSITIVITY

The exaggerated immune response to a non-harmful antigen and there are four types of hypersensitivity

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16

WHAT OCCURS DURING PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE?

Primary response is when the body is exposed to an antigen that it does not normally encounter. After having dealt with said antigen, the body then uses memory T and B cells to remember the antigen if it were to occur again.

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17

WHAT PART OF THE ANTIBODY BINDS TO THE ANTIGEN?

The epitope or V regions

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18

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTION OF THE TONSILS?

prevent germs from entering the body through the head or mouth. They also house a lot of WBC’s

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19

WHAT HORMONE REGULATES T LYMPHOCYTES?

thymosin and thymulin

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20

HOW DOES AGING EFFECT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM?

The body loses the ability to protect against infection and cancer. It also loses its ability to heal

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21

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES?

a part of immunotherapy and are produced by B cells. They are produced when the B Cell fuses with a cancer cell, known as a hybridoma

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22

WHAT ARE THE TWO COLLECTING DUCTS THAT DRAION THE LYMPHATIC TRUNKS?

The right lymph duct and the thoracic duct

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23

WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF THE BODIES FIRST IMMUNE RESPONSE?

The first response by the body is innate immunity. This is when phagocytes are activated and antibodies are released to deal with the antigen

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24

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS?

They bear on their cell membrane the antigen of the antigen-bearing agent  that was phagocytized. T and B Cells use this to “remember” these antigens for the next time it may attack.

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25

WHAT IS EDEMA?

Inflammation to the extreme. When too much fluid is trapped in th tissue and can’t go anywhere

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26

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX?

a macrophage bears the antigen of the phagolysosome on it’s surface which the B and T cells use to remember the antigen

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27

WHAT IS DiGeorge syndrome?

a disease where part of chromosome 22 is deleted leaving the body unable to fully develop various systems like the immune or reproductive systems.

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28

LYMPHATIC VESSEL IS SIMILAR TO WHAT VESSELS?

Veins

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29

LYMPH IS WHAT?

The fluid found in the lymphatic system

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30

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE SPLEEN?

part of the filtration and monitoring of blood housing both lymphocytes and macrophages

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31

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM?

IgG and IgM antibodies bind to their antigens which then causes certain sites on the antibodies to be constantly exposed. This system is more effective than direct attack and helps in the immunity of the body.

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32

WHAT IS A HAPTEN?

small molecules that are not antigenic by themselves, but when they combine with a large molecule in the body, they can evoke an immune response

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33

WHAT IS THE ROLE THE PLASMA CELLS?

synthesize and secrete antibodies such as IgM and IgG

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34

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF CYTOKINES?

enhance some cellular responses to antigens

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35

WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES?

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36

WHERE IS RED AND WHITE PULP FOUND?

White pulp is found in lymphocytes. Red pulp is found in Red blood cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages

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37

WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF INFLAMMATION?

Blood vessels dilate. Capillary permeability increases and fluid leaks into tissue spaces. White blood cells invade the region. Tissue fluids containing clotting factors seep into the area. Fibroblasts arrive. Phagocytes are active. Cells divide.

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38

HOW DOES THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM INFLUENCING BODY FLUIDS?

the lymphatic system influences body fluids by returning the body fluids to the cardiovascular system

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39

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF LYMPH?

Lymph carries pathogenic microorganisms and foreign particles to the lymph nodes, where they are filtered out and acted upon. It also returns excess interstitial fluid and small proteins that were filtered out of the blood capillaries to the bloodstream. Lymph also plays a role in dietary fat absorption and transportation of these fats to the bloodstream.

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40

WHAT IS CLONES?

Group of cells that descend from a single cell and are therefore genetically identical to it

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41

WHAT IS SPECIES RESISTANCE?

A species is resistant to certain diseases to which other species are susceptible

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42

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF CLASS II MH PROTEINS, AND CLASS I MHC PROTEINS?

Class 1: in cell membranes of all body cells except red blood cells Class 2: on surfaces of antigen-presenting cells, thymus cells, and activated T cells

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43

WHAT IS AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE?

An immune response against a person’s own tissues

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44

WHAT IS INNATE DEFENSES?

Inborn, nonspecific defense that blocks entry of or destroys pathogens

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45

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF MEMORY B AND T CELLS?

B and T lymphocytes are produced in a primary immune response that can be activated rapidly if the same antigen is encountered again

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46

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF MALT?

Initiates immune responses to specific antigens encountered along all mucosal surfaces

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47

WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE?

The cells must first encounter antigens by binding specifically to them using specialized membrane proteins. This binding elicits changes in the activity of the immune cells, termed activation, which is the second step in the adaptive immune response. Third, the immune cells attack invading pathogens or infected cells.  Finally, long-lived, pre-activated immune cells that wait for a subsequent infection are formed in the memory phase of the adaptive immune response

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48

WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF INTERLEUKIN-1 SECRETIONS?

It raises thermoregulatory set point

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49

HOW IS A SHORT-TERM LOW-GRADE FEVER EFFECT INNATE DEFENSE?

Elevated body temperature indirectly inhibits microbial growth and increases phagocytic activity

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50

WHAT PROCESS WILL INCREASE LYMPH FORMATION?

Edema

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51

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF ANTIGENS?

Receptors on the surface of lymphocytes enable the cells to recognize non-self antigens

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52

WHAT IS THE PATH OF LYMPH FLOWW?

Contraction of skeletal muscles compresses lymphatic vessels, moving the lymph, Respiratory process creates low pressure in thorax, and high pressure in abdomen during inspiration; sends lymph from abdomen to thorax, Smooth muscle in the larger lymphatic vessels contracts to aid in flow of lymph

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53

WHAT CELL TYPES ARE PRIMARILY RESPONSIBLE FOR IMMUNITY?

Memory B cells

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54

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM?

cleans up damaged cells, helps your body heal after an injury or an infection and destroys microscopic organisms

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55

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF B LYMPHOCYTES?

Type of WBC that produces and secretes antibodies that bind and destroy nonself molecules

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56

WHERE ARE THE SUPRATROCHLEAR LYMPH NODES LOCATED?

Superficially on the medial side of the elbow

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57

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF PLASMA CELLS?

Synthesize and secrete antibodies whose molecular structure is similar to the activated B cells’s antigen receptors

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58

WHAT IS OPSONIZATION?

Alters antigen cell membranes so cells are more susceptible to phagocytosis

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59

WHAT IS THE ROLE OFM THE HILUM?

Depression where blood vessels, nerves, and other structures enter an organ

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60

Know the function of IgA

IgA is prominently found in exocrine gland secretions its major function is to defend against bacteria and viruses

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61

Know the function of IgG

IgG occurs in plasma and tissue fluid and it’s main functions are defending against viruses, bacteria, and toxins. It also activates the complement. 

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62

Know the function of IgM

IgM occurs in plasma and reacts with antigens on some RBC membranes following mismatched blood transfusions aka agglutination; activates complement

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63

Know the function of IgD

IgD is most often found on the cell membranes of B lymphocytes and they activate B Cells

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64

Know the function of IgE

IgE occurs within exocrine gland secretions and helps promote inflammation and allergic response

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65

Autoimmunity

The cells, organs, antibodies, and proteins of the body attack the body instead of protecting it. Type 1 Diabetes is an example of this.

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66

Passive Immunity

The immunity a baby receives from its mother through the placenta.

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67

Herd Immunity

The majority of a population has been vaccinated/ has immunity to a specific disease. Therefore the remaining population that has not been vaccinated will be fine because the disease cannot be given to them.

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68

Innate Immunity

The body uses to naturally defend itself against pathogens.

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69

3 types of innate immunity

  1. Physical barrier is our skin 

  2. Physiological barrier would be our tears, saliva, stomach pH, and bile

  3. Cellular barriers would be leukocytes, macrophages, and the cytokine barrier 

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70

Type 1 Hypersensitivity

Our allergies. IgE is overproduced against a specific allergen. This is an immediate reaction that results in symptoms like hives, anaphylactic shock, hay fever, asthma, and eczema.

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71

Type 2 hypersensitivy

An antibody dependent cytotoxic reaction. This is when an antigen binds to a specific cell causes phagocytosis and complement lyses the antigen; transfusion is another reaction

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72

Type 3 hypersensitivity

An immune-complex reaction where antigen-antibody complexes form and deposit into tissues. The antibody complexes cannot be removed and therefore cause damage to tissues through phagocytosis of cells. AN example of this is rheumatoid arthritis

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73

Type 4 hypersensitivity

A delayed-reaction that may affect anyone. It normally results from repeated exposure of skin to an allergen. The allergen activates the T-Cells within the skin which releases chemicals that cause inflammation and eruption.

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74

WHAT OCCURS DURING SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE?

Secondary response is when an antigen that has been in the body before is found and destroyed by the immune system because the body remembers that antigen with the memory cells. Secondary response is normally quicker in regards to the body healing than primary response.

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75

Lysis

The destruction of the cell membrane. This most commonly occurs when the body encounters a foreign cell. It allows the rapid movement of ions and water.

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76

Precipitation

the antigens on the surface of a foreign cell become insoluble

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77

Agglutination

The clumping of antigen-bearing cells. Same as the agglutination that occurs when we receive the wrong blood in a transfusion (This is a part of activation of complement

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78

Opsonization

The antigens on a cell membrane are altered therefore allowing the cell to be more susceptible to phagocytosis

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79

Mononuclear Phagocytic System

composed of the phagocytic cells that line the blood vessels in the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes. It is also known as the reticuloendothelial system

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80

Mechanical barriers

the skin and mucous membranes that line the passageways of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

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81

Helper T Cells

Produce cytokines when encountering B Cells to the B Cell know of the knew antigen that it found via the surface of an accessory cell like a macrophage

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82

Memory T Cells

Part of the secondary response because they keep the antibodies of previous antigens

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83

NK Cells

Very small population of lymphocytes that focus on viruses and cancers. They destroy them by using perforins which lyse holes in the cell membranes

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84

Plasma cells

The result of the humoral response. When the B cell is activated by the cytokines of the T Cell and has an antigen that fits its receptors, it proliferates cloning itself. The b cells differentiate into either memory b cells or plasma b cells which produce antibodies or immunoglobulin

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85

Adaptive defense

More specific and precise, targeting specific antigens carried out by lymphocytes that recognize certain foreign molecules

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86

Nonspecific/ Innate/ Inborn

first line of defense and is intended to  provide an immediate response to invading pathogens without prior exposure

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87

Basophils

inhibit clotting and promote inflammation

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88

Neutrophils

mobile WBCs that kill and digest bacteria

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89

Eosinophils

kill parasites and control inflammation and allergic reactions.

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90

Cellular immune response

performed by immune cells or T cells

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91

Humoral immune response

performed by antibodies or B cells

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92

Spuratrochlear

Depression where blood vessels, nerves, and other structures enter an organ

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93

Pelvic Lymp

hollow place within the ring formed by the sacrum and hip bones

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94

Inguinal

part of the abdomen on either size of the pubic region

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95

Abdominal

space between the diaphragm and the pelvic inlet that contains the abdominal viscera

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96

what region of the body is without lymph nodes?

Central Nervous System

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97

Antibody-dependent cytotoxic reaction

phagocytosis and complement-mediated lysis of antigen

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98

Colony-stimulating factors

stimulate bone marrow to produce lympocytes

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99

interferons

block viral replication, stimulate macrophages to engulf viruses, stimulate B cells to produce antibodies, attack cancer cells

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100

Interleukins

Control lymphocyte different and proliferation

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