ab psych 2

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Idiographic

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Algebra

11th

315 Terms

1

Idiographic

-Individual information about a client

-Use the procedures of assessment and diagnoses

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Clinical Assessment

-Used to determine whether, how, and why a person is behaving abnormally and how that person may be helped

-Tools depend on clinicians theoretical orientation

\n -Psychodynamic clinicians use methods that assess a clients personality and probe for unconscious conflicts he or she may experiencing

- Cognitive behavioral clinicians are more likely to use assessment methods that reveal specific dysfunctional behaviors and cognitions \n \n -Clinical assessment techniques 3 categories; clinical interview, tests, and observations \n \n -To be useful, tools must be standardized and have clear reliability and validity

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Standardize

-When a test is administered to a large group of ppl & that score serves as a standard/norm against any other individual

-Set up common steps to be followed whenever it is administered

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Reliability

-Consistency of assessment measures

-Must meet requirements of standardization, reliability, and validity \n \n -Clinicians cannot use its results if they're uninterpretable, inconsistent, or inaccurate. \n \n -2 kinds of reliability; test-retest, high interrater

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test - retest reliability

-Assess. the tool has high retest reliability, one of a kind reliability if it yields similar results

-To measure test-retest reliability, participants are tested on 2 occasions and 2 scores are correlated \n \n -Higher correlation --> Greater test's reliability

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High interrater reliability

If different judges independently agree on how to score and interpret it

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Assessment tool

-Shows high interrater reliability if different judges indep. agree on how to score & interpret it

-Must have validity; must accurately measure what it is supposed to measure. \n \n -May appear to be valid bc it makes sense & seems reasonable (FACE VALIDITY), but doesn't mean its trustworthy \n \n -Shouldn't be used unless it has high predictive validity or concurrent validity

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Predictive validity

-A tool's ability to predict future characteristics or behavior

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Concurrent validity

the extent to which two measures of the same trait or ability agree

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Clinical interview

-Face to face encounter

-Interview is often the first contact between client and clinician used to collect info about problems, feelings, lifestyle, etc. \n \n -Clinician who worked with Franco began with a face to face interview \n \n -Most have both structured & unstructured portions, they tend to favor one kind over the other

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Limitations of Clinical interviewers

-Sometimes lack validity, or accuracy

-People may be unable to give an accurate report in their interviews \n \n -Interviewers may make mistakes in judgements that slant info they gather \n \n -Usually rely too heavily on first impressions & be bias

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Psychodynamic interviewers

-Try to learn about the person's needs and memories of past events and relationships.

-Typically use Unstructured Interviews

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Cognitive behavioral interviewers

-Try to identify info about the stimuli that trigger responses, the consequences of the responses. \n -Usually use structured interviews

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Humanistic clinicians

-Ask about the persons self evaluation, self concept, and values.

-Typically use Unstructured Interviews

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Biological clinicians

-Look for signs of biochemical or brain dysfunction

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Sociocultural interviews

-Ask about the family, social, and cultural environments.

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Unstructured Interview

-Clinician asks mostly open ended questions

-Allows interviewer to follow leads and explore relevant topics that can't be anticipated before interview \n \n -Typically appeal to psychodynamic and humanistic clinicians

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Structured interview

-Clinicians ask prepared questions-mostly specific questions.

-Many include a mental status exam; set of questions and observations that systematically evaluate client's awareness, time & place, attention span, memory, and judgements \n \n -Ensures clinicians will cover same important issues and enables them to compare the responses of diff. individuals \n \n -Typically appeal to cognitive behavioral clinicians

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Clinical tests

-A device for gathering information about a few aspects of a person's psychological functioning from which broader information about the person can be inferred

-More than 1000 clinical tests are in use \n \n -Clinicians most often use; \n projective tests, \n personality inventories, \n response inventories, \n psychophysiological tests, \n neurological and neuropsychological tests, \n intelligence tests.

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Projective tests

-Require that clients interpret vague stimuli such as inkblots or ambiguous pictures or follow open-ended instruction

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-Used primarily by psychodynamic clinicians to help assess the unconscious drives and conflicts

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-most widely used are; Rorschach test, Thematic apperception test, sentence completion, and drawings

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-Problems with validity & reliability

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Rorschach Test

a projective test composed of ambiguous inkblots; the way people interpret the blots is thought to reveal aspects of their personality

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Thematic apperception test

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

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Drawings

tells us something about its creator,

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-evaluations are based on details and shape of drawing, solidity of line

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Personality inventories

a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings, beliefs and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits

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-Individuals indicate whether each of a long list of statements applies to them

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-Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test is MOST COMMONLY used

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-Personality inventories are BETTER than projective tests

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-Advantages; standardized, greater test-retest reliability, more validity (not highly valid)

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Hypochondriasis

Items showing abnormal concern with bodily functions

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"I have chest pains several times a week"

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Depression

Items showing extreme pessimism and hopelessness

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"I often feel hopeless about the future"

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Hysteria

person using physical or mental symptoms as a way of unconsciously avoiding conflicts and responsibilities

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"My heart frequently pounds so hard I can feel it"

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Psychopathic deviate

repeated and gross disregard for social customs and an emotional shallowness

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"My activities are often criticized by others

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Masculinity/Femininity

items that are thought to separate male and female respondents

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"I like to arrange flowers"

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paranoia

abnormal suspiciousness and delusions of grandeur or persecution

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"There are evil people trying to influence my mind"

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Psychasthenia

obsessions, compulsions, abnormal fears, and guilt and indecisiveness

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"I save nearly everything I buy, even after I have no use for it"

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Schizophrenia

Items that show bizarre or unusual thoughts or behavior

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"Things around me do not seem real"

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Hypomania

Items that show emotional excitement, overactivity and flight of ideas

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"At times I feel very high or very low for no apparent reason"

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Social introversion

items that show shyness, little interest in people, and insecurity

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"I am easily embarrassed"

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Response inventories

tests that measure a person's responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect, social skills, or cognitive processes

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-Affective inventories: measure severity of such emotions as anxiety, depression and anger

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-Social skill inventories: used primarily by behavioral and family social clinicians. Respondents indicate how they would react in a variety of situations

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-Cognitive inventories: reveal a persons typical thoughts and assumptions and can help uncover counterproductive patterns of thinking

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Psychophysiological tests

measure physiological responses as possible indicators of psychological problems

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-polygraph (lie detector)

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-many require expensive treatment and can be inaccurate and unreliable

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Neurological tests

designed to measure brain structure and activity directly

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-electroencephalogram (EEG); records brain waves when neurons firing

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-neuroimaging, or brain scanning, techniques (CT scan, PET scan, fMRI)

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-sometimes unable to detect subtle brain abnormalities

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MRI shows entirety of the brain and head

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CAT scan shows simple xray

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PET scan looks like a map

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neuropsychological tests

measure cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances on certain tasks; clinicians interpret abnormal performances as an indicator of underlying brain problems

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-focuses on visual perception, memory, and visual motor coordination

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-Bender visual-motor gestalt test (9 cards each displaying geometrical design & patients try to copy each separately)

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Intelligence tests

consists of series of tasks requiring ppl to use various verbal and nonverbal skills

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