AP Psych Chap 8 & 9

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Ivan Pavlov

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Ivan Pavlov

Contribution: developed the theory of "classical conditioning" while working with dogs

Significance: Father of Classical Conditioning

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Classical Conditioning

Learning that takes place when two or more stimuli are paired together

UCS = UCR; NS + UCS = UCR; & CS = CR

<p>Learning that takes place when two or more stimuli are paired together</p><p>UCS = UCR; NS + UCS = UCR; &amp; CS = CR</p>
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Unconditioned Stimulus

Part of Classical Conditioning

It is the stimulus that triggers a natural reflexive response.

Pavlov's Dogs: "Meat" Little Albert: "Loud noise"

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Conditioned Stimulus

Part of Classical Conditioning

It initially has no effect but after conditioning, it triggers a natural reflexive response.

Pavlov's Dogs: It was the "Bell" Little Albert: "White Mouse"

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Extinction

Classical Conditioning: The disappearance of a behavior because CS no longer paired with the UCS

Operant Conditioning: The disappearance of a behavior because it is no longer reinforced or punished

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Spontaneous Recovery

Classical Conditioning: When a previous CR returns after it has been extinguished

Operant Conditioning: Occurs when a response begins again after extinction

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Stimulus Generalization

Classical Conditioning: When the NS and the CS are different. (Example: Little Albert being afraid of any thing that is white and furry)

Operant Conditioning: When a reinforced/punished behavior occurs in a setting/situation where it was NOT learned (Example: Not cursing at home or at school)

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Stimulus Discrimination

Classical Conditioning: When the NS and the CS are the same (Example: Little Albert being afraid of a white mouse)

Operant Conditioning: When a reinforced/punished behavior occurs in a setting/situation where it was learned (Example: Cursing only at home because it is acceptable but not at school)

<p>Classical Conditioning: When the NS and the CS are the same (Example: Little Albert being afraid of a white mouse)</p><p>Operant Conditioning: When a reinforced/punished behavior occurs in a setting/situation where it was learned (Example: Cursing only at home because it is acceptable but not at school)</p>
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Higher Order Conditioning

When the first CS is paired with a second CS

The second CS is presented briefly before the first CS

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Taste Aversions

Psychologist: Garcia

Defined: If you ingest an unusual food or drink and then become nauseous, you will probably develop an aversion to the food or drink.

Significance: Violates the acquisition principles of classical conditioning

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Operant conditioning

Defined: Learning is based on the association of one's behavior and its consequences. Consequences are reinforced or punished

Example: You choose to break curfew based on the consequences

<p>Defined: Learning is based on the association of one&apos;s behavior and its consequences. Consequences are reinforced or punished</p><p>Example: You choose to break curfew based on the consequences</p>
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Law of Effect

Psychologist: Edward Thorndike

Defined: if a behavior results in a satisfying consequence, it will likely be repeated whereas; if a behavior results in a unsatisfying consequence, it will NOT likely be repeated

Example: If you complement your mother and she lets you stay out past curfew, you will complement her again

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B.F. Skinner

Contributions: Invented the Operant chamber, aka his ________ box, to use in his research of animal learning.

Significance: Father & Developer of Operant Conditioing

<p>Contributions: Invented the Operant chamber, aka his ________ box, to use in his research of animal learning.</p><p>Significance: Father &amp; Developer of Operant Conditioing</p>
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Positive Reinforcement

Part of Operant Conditioning

Adding something to increase the likelihood of a behavior occuring again

Example: Receiving $5 for every "A" in high school

<p>Part of Operant Conditioning</p><p>Adding something to increase the likelihood of a behavior occuring again</p><p>Example: Receiving $5 for every &quot;A&quot; in high school</p>
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Negative Reinforcement

Part of Operant Conditioning

Increasing the likelihood of a behavior occurring again by removing a negative stimuli

Example: Taking aspirin to relieve a headache

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Positive Punishment

Part of Operant Conditioning

Adding something to decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring again

Example: Spanking and yelling

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Negative Punishment

Part of Operant Conditioning

Removing something to decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring again

Example: Grounding

<p>Part of Operant Conditioning</p><p>Removing something to decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring again</p><p>Example: Grounding</p>
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Shaping

Part of Operant Conditioning

Positively reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desird behavior to teach a new behavior

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Primary Reinforcers

Reinforcers that are rewarding such as food, water, rest, whose natural properties are reinforcing.

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Secondary Reinforcers

Defined: Reinforcers that are rewarding because we learned that are reinforcing.

Example: praise, money, the chance to play video games.

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Fixed-Ratio Schedule

Defined: schedule of reinforcement after a set number of responses.

Example: Being paid for every 10 pizzas made

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Variable-Ratio Schedule

Defined: schedule of reinforcement after a varying number of responses.

Example: playing a slot machine

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Fixed-Interval Schedule

Defined: schedule of reinforcement after a fixed amount of time has passed

Example: cramming for an exam

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Variable-Interval Schedule

Defined: schedule of reinforcement after varying amounts of time

Example: pop (surprise) quizzes in class

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Instinctive Drift

Defined: when animals revert to instinctive behaviors rather than the operantly conditioned behaviors

Examples: Rats will not walk backward, chickens won't hit a ball and run to first base, and pigs won't put wooden dollars into a piggy bank

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Observational Learning

Defined: learn by watching others

Example: BoBo Doll Study

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Latent Learning

Defined: Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

Example: Tolman's rats would only complete the maze if there was cheese for them at the end of the maze

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Insight Learning

Defined: suddenly knowing the solution to the problem

Example: When taking a test and the previous answer comes to you without effort

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Acquisition of Classical Conditioning

Frequency: the more often the CS and the US are paired together

Timing: the CS is presented a half a second before the US

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Biological Preparedness

Defined: humans and animals have predisposed fears that help us survive

Examples; Phobia of heights keeps us away from danger

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Unconditioned Response

Part of Classical Conditioning

It is the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the stimulus

Pavlov's Dogs: It was the "Salivating to the Meat" Little Albert: "Screaming at the Loud Noise"

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Associative Learning

Defined: learn by putting together two events

Example: Expect to hear thunder after viewing lightening

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Habituation

Defined: An organisms decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

Example: Your parents yell at you a lot and eventually you tune out their yelling

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Watson

Contribution: applies Classical Conditioning to Humans through the "Little Albert" Experiment

Significance: Creates "Behaviorism" Theory

<p>Contribution: applies Classical Conditioning to Humans through the &quot;Little Albert&quot; Experiment</p><p>Significance: Creates &quot;Behaviorism&quot; Theory</p>
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Thorndike

Contribution: studied cats in puzzle boxes and recorded their behaviors

Significance: Creates "Law of Effect" theory

<p>Contribution: studied cats in puzzle boxes and recorded their behaviors</p><p>Significance: Creates &quot;Law of Effect&quot; theory</p>
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Bandura

Contribution: Studied how children mimic others behaviors and repeat that same behavior

Significance: Creates "Observational Learning" Theory

<p>Contribution: Studied how children mimic others behaviors and repeat that same behavior</p><p>Significance: Creates &quot;Observational Learning&quot; Theory</p>
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Seligman

Contribution: Used dogs to demonstrates the significance of cognitive processes in classical conditioning

Significance: Creates "Learned Helplessness" theory

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Tolman

Contribution: demonstrated the significance of cognitive processes in operant conditioning by studying rats in mazes

Significance: Creates the "Latent Learning" theory

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Pavlov's Dogs

First experiment that created and demonstrate the theory of classical conditioning

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Little Albert

First experiment to demonstrate how emotions can be classically conditioned in humans

Provides a foundation for the "Behaviorism Theory"

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Conditioned Response

Part of Classical Conditioning

Occurs after conditioning when the conditioned stimulus (CS) triggers an innate response

Pavlov's Dogs: It was the "Salivating to the Bell" Little Albert: "Screaming/Crying"

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Learned Helplessness

Defined: Exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive (bad) events produces passive behavior

Study: Seligman delivering shocks to dogs

Example: If a student consistently fails math, they may start to give up or a sports team that consistently loses may start to belive they can't win

<p>Defined: Exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive (bad) events produces passive behavior</p><p>Study: Seligman delivering shocks to dogs</p><p>Example: If a student consistently fails math, they may start to give up or a sports team that consistently loses may start to belive they can&apos;t win</p>
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Reliable Signals

Defined: A cognitive process in classical conditioning where the organism must decide if the NS accurately predicts the UCS

Example: Pavlov's Dogs-the dogs had to think that the NS (bell) predicted the UCS (meat)

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Concerns regarding Punishment

It does not teach the learner appropriate behavior and can also increase violent behavior in the learner

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Skinner Box

Also known as: Operant Chamber

Description: A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal (rat or pigeon) can manipulate in order to obtain a reward

<p>Also known as: Operant Chamber</p><p>Description: A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal (rat or pigeon) can manipulate in order to obtain a reward</p>
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Immediate Reinforcer

Defined: when you are immediately rewarded for a behavior (it's all about the short run)

Example: skipping school and enjoying time with friends

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Continuous Reinforcement Schedule

Defined: When every behavior is reinforced

Example: a multiple choice test

Significance: best for "establishing" a behavior

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BoBo Doll Study

Psychologist: Bandura

Description: Children watched (through a one way glass)a confederate play with the BoBo doll and then played with the BoBo doll in the same way as the confederate

Significance: used to develop "observational learning"

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Densensitization

Defined: after viewing a similar act/behavior, you become less emotionally responsive (indifferent or unaware) to the stimulus

Example: The first murder on TV is shocking but becomes less shocking as you watch violent television

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Delayed Reinforcer

Defined: when you complete a behavior but not awarded immediately (it's all about the long run)

Example: getting good grades in school and attending class in order to get a good job in the future

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Partial Reinforcement Schedule

Defined: When a random behavior is reinforced

Example: Fixed Ratio, Variable Ratio, Fixed Interval, Variable Interval

Significance: best for "maintaining" a behavior

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Garcia Effect

conditioned taste aversions, a single bad experience can stay with us

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William James

an American philosopher who viewed consciousness as a continuous flow or "stream of consciousness" // saw consciousness as an evolutionary adaptation to environment that made it possible for humans to thrive and to continue to adapt

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consciousness

our state of awareness of our existence, sensations, thoughts, and environment // we are conscious to the degree that we are aware of what is going on both inside and outside our bodies

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dualism

belief that mind and brain are distinct entities // the mind (nonphysical) and the brain/body (physical) are completely different things and neither one can be inferred form the existence of the other

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materialism

all phenomena are matter, energy, or the interaction between the two // the mind exists as a function of the brain

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conscious awareness

includes all the sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings you are aware of at any given moment // "all the ideas in your immediate awareness, such as your thoughts, feelings, senses"

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walking consciousness

your normal, alert awareness that includes your working memory

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nonconscious level

includes all the various biological processes that are taking place internally and constantly without your noticing // "biological functions occurring without your awareness, such as respiration and digestion"

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preconscious level

includes stored information about yourself or your environment that you are not currently aware or thinking of but can easily recall to mind when asked // "items we can access from long-term memory"

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subconscious level

includes information you have been exposed to but cannot recall // but, this hidden information or experience can influence your behavior // ex: "mere exposure effect" or familiarity principle // "hidden memories that influence behavior despite no clear memory of them"

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unconscious level

Sigmund Freud // an invisible force deep within our minds, a series of unconscious conflicts between competing parts of our personalities that influence our attitudes and actions // parts include id, superego, and ego // "from the psychoanalytic perspective, hidden memories that influence behavior but can never be known to the conscious mind"

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id

life and death instincts, immediate gratification, pleasure-seeking

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superego

societal or parental standards that we try to live up to

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ego

self-image and reality-based part of the mind that tries to balance the id and the superego

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biological rhythms

periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning

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circadian rhythm

A biological rhythm that defines the sleep/wake cycle of about 24 hours without external cues // 16 hours of wake and 8 hours of sleep

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ultradian rhythm

A biological rhythm that follows a cycle of less than 24 hours but longer than an hour // ex: such as eye-blinks, heartbeats and sleep patterns

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infradian rhythms

biological rhythms that occur more than a day // ex: menstruation, breeding, seasonal migration cycles

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diurnal

active during the day

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nocturnal

active at night

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chronobiology

the study of these various temporal biological rhythms

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electroencephalography (EEG)

measures electrical currents in the brain, recording them as a visual tracing (encephalogram) // electrodes are attached to the scalp to measure the brain's electrical currents during sleep and compare the results to those recorded during the waking hours // EEG measures electrical currents produces as the brain cells communicate with one another // EEG measures wave patterns in hertz (Hz)

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delta waves

up to 4 Hz; slow waves // show deep sleep; stage 3 of NREM

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theta waves

between 4 and 7 Hz // show stages 1 and 2 of NREM sleep

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alpha waves

between 7 and 12 Hz // show relaxed, ready for sleep

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beta waves

between 15 and 30 Hz; quick and rapid waves // show awake, alert, anxious

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suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

"master clock" // in hypothalamus // interprets information taken from the eye and signals the pineal gland to secrete melatonin

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melatonin

the sleep hormone // increases naturally at night as darkness falls and then decreases during the day when the light returns

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wake/sleep cycle

as daylight lessens, the eyes (rods/cones in the cornea) detect lower light levels, and cells in the retina (ganglion cells) communicate directly w/ the SCN // SCN interprets information taken from the eye and signals the pineal gland to secrete melatonin into the bloodstream

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Stage 1 of sleep

nondreaming stage of non-REM (NREM) sleep // our brains produce high-frequency and low-amplitude theta waves

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Stage 2 of sleep

our brain's high-frequency and low-amplitude theta waves begin to slow down, we progress into slow-wave sleep // the sleep spindles and k-complexes begin to appear

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Stage 3 of sleep

slow-wave deep, delta waves begin to appear more often, hormones are released into the bloodstream for growth in children, our immune system refreshes itself, and sleep is so deep that we can't be easily awakened because we're unaware of our environment // essential for good health...without deep sleep, we are at greater risk for illness and may have difficulties w/ concentration and coordination throughout the day

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non-REM (NREM) sleep

nondreaming stage of sleep

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slow-wave sleep

the sleep spindles and k-complexes of Stage 2 begin to appear

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sleep spindles

slower-paced waves with spikes comparable to the low-amplitude theta waves of Stage 1

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k-complexes

large, high-voltage waves that often appear in response to such outside stimuli as sounds

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Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep

often called the "paradoxical stage" b/c the brain waves move as if we're awake // brain is active, but the brain stem blocks communication between the cerebral cortex and the motor neurons to produce REM paralysis // dream during REM sleep //plays a role in memory formation and consolidation // percentage of REM sleep reduces as we age

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REM paralysis

when the brain stem blocks communication between the cerebral cortex and the motor neurons to keep our bodies still during dreams...but we still experience muscle twitches

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REM rebound

if we don't experience REM sleep one night, we can make up for it the next day w/ more REM sleep to help the body recover

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sleep process

sleep onset, Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3, Stage 2, REM, repeat

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Sleep Theories

  • evolutionary: sleep keeps us safely "tucked away" during the hours when our vision was limited and predators were active

  • sleep helps restore health and efficiency / NREM sleep helps restore physiological functions / REM sleep helps restore mental processes

  • sleeps helps us consolidate the information of the day and support long-term memory

  • sleeps helps us replay and process stressors from the day through dreaming

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sleep deprivation

causes memory impairment and moodiness and is associated w/ overeating and eating unhealthy foods

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sleep debt

chronic sleep deprivation

  • chronic irritability, lack of motivation, anxiety, inability to concentrate, reduced vigilance, longer reaction times, distractibility, reduced energy, restlessness, lack of coordination, poor decision-making, increased errors, forgetfulness, and physical symptoms such as high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and obesity lack of REM sleep

  • hallucinations

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sleep-deprivation psychosis

chronic sleep deprivation / sleep debt individuals who suffer breaks from reality

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microsleep

when our need for sleep is so great that we're exhausted and we have a brief shift in brain activity from waking to sleeping brain waves that last up to 30 seconds // we lose consciousness and are unaware of our surroundings // symptoms: nodding of the head, drooping eyelids, constant blinking, having a blank stare, and difficulty concentrating // often unaware that microsleep occurred

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circadian rhythm disruption

an out-of-sync sleep/wake cycle

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jet lag

a circadian rhythm disruption that occurs when you travel across several time zones // adjustment can mentally and physically take up to a week

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insomnia

the inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep // can be temporary or chronic // 10-20% of the population // caused by underlying medical or psychiatric conditions, stress, emotional or physical discomfort or pain, use of medications or stimulants, or disruptions to the normal sleep cycle

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narcolepsy

a disorder in which a person suddenly falls into REM sleep during waking hours // can occur either during periods of excitement or low activity // lack of activity and staying still for long periods can make narcolepsy symptoms worse // condition occurs because the brain doesn't produce enough orexin

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