CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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The circulatory system

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1

The circulatory system

  • Can be thought of as the transport system of the body

  • A closed system consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood

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Function of cardiovascular system

Deliver oxygen & nutrient-rich blood to body cells and remove carbon dioxide and waste

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Location of heart

Located in the thoracic cavity between the lungs slightly to the left

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Heart

A hollow, cone-shaped muscle about the size of a fist that is made up of cardiac muscle

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Pericardium

A double serous membrane

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Visceral pericardium (epicardium)

Next to heart

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Parietal pericardium

Outside layer

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Serous fluid

fills the space between the layers of pericardium

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Heart Walls

Three layers

  • Epicardium

  • Myocardium

  • Endocardium

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Epicardium

–Outside layer

–This layer is the visceral pericardium

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Myocardium

–Middle and thickest layer

–Mostly cardiac muscle

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Endocardium

–Inner layer

–Made up of simple squamous epithelium

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4 chambers of the heart

–Left & right atria – receive blood

–Left & right ventricles -pump blood out

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Septum

Separates the chambers

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Valves

  • flaps of connective tissue between the atria and ventricles

  • moves the blood through the heart in one direction

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Open

Valves ___ as blood is pumped through

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Chordae tendineae (“heart strings”)

Holds the valves in place

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To prevent backflow

Valves are closed ____

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Atrioventricular valves

– between atria and ventricles, open valves

–left atrium → bicuspid valve (mitral valve) → left ventricle

–right atria → tricuspid valve → right ventricle

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Semilunar valves

- between ventricle and artery, closed valves

–right ventricle → pulmonary semilunar valve → pulmonary ARTERY

–left ventricle → aortic valve → aorta

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Aorta

Blood leaves left ventricle towards body

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Pulmonary arteries

Oxygen-poor blood leaves right ventricle towards lung

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Vena cava

–Superior and inferior

–Blood from the body enters the right atrium

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Pulmonary veins (4)

Oxygen-rich blood from lungs enters left atrium

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Blood vessels

Tubes which transport  blood

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Function of blood vessels

–Transport blood

–Carry out the exchange of gases and waste

–Regulate blood pressure

–Direct blood flow

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Types of blood vessels

  1. arteries

  2. capillaries

  3. veins

  4. diaseases

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Arteries

Thick walls blood vessels which carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to the body.

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Aorta

Largest artery in the body

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Capillaries

  • Microscopic blood vessels which connect arteries and veins together

  • Where exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste occur

  • One cell layer thick

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Veins

  • Blood vessels which carry oxygen-poor blood from the body back to the heart.

  • Thin walls

  • Requires muscles to push blood back to the heart

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Arteriosclerosis

–The hardening of the arteries due to the formation of scar tissue

–Leads to hypertension, heart attack, & stroke

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Varicose Veins

Valves in the veins become weak leading to abnormal dilations in the superficial veins

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Phlebitis

–Inflammation of a vein

–Very serious because it can lead to blood clots (thrombosis) and death

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Circulation

  • the transportation of blood

  • Movement of Blood Through Vessels

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Arterial blood

Most ____ is pumped by the heart

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Milking action

Veins use the _____ of muscles to help move the blood

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The goal of circulation of blood in the body

1.Send oxygen-poor blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and then

2.To pump oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body cells

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Three circulation pathways

1.  Pulmonary circulation

2.  Systemic circulation

3.  Coronary circulation

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Pulmonary circulation

From heart to lungs

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Systemic circulation

From heart to body

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Coronary circulation

From heart to heart muscle

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Pulmonary Circulation

  • The flow of blood from the heart to the lungs

DEOXYGENATED BLOOD must have carbon dioxide removed, so it is sent to the lungs

Body cells > Veins > Vena cava (1)> R Atrium (2)> Tricuspid valve > R Ventricle > Pulmonary Semilunar valve> Pulmonary ARTERY (3) > Lungs

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Systemic Circulation

  • The flow of blood from the heart to the body Cells

OXYGENATED BLOOD coming back from the lungs is pumped to the body cells

Lungs > Pulmonary VEINS (4)> L Atrium > Bicuspid (mitral) valve > L Ventricle (5) > Aortic Valve > Aorta (6)> Arteries > Body cells

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Blood

The only fluid tissue in the human body

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5x

Blood is ___ thicker than water

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Scarlet red

Oxygen-rich blood

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Dull red

Oxygen-poor blood

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Ph of blood

must remain between 7.35–7.45

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Volume of blood

5-6 Liters or about 6 quarts/body

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Composition of blood

  1. Blood plasma

  2. Erythrocytes – Red Blood Cells

  3. Leukocytes – White Blood Cells

  4. Platelets

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Blood plasma

  • Makes up 55% of blood

  • Composed of 90% of water

  • Contains nutrients, salts (metal ions), respiratory gases, hormones, proteins, waste products

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Erythrocytes – Red Blood Cells

  • The main function is to carry oxygen

  • Biconcave disks

  • Anucleate (no nucleus)

  • Outnumber white blood cells 1000:1

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250 million

Each erythrocyte has ____ hemoglobin molecules

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Hemoglobin

–Iron-containing protein

–Binds strongly to oxygen

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Leukocytes – White Blood Cells

Crucial in the body’s defense against disease

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Platelets

  • Small fragments produced from ruptured cells (megakaryocytes)

  • Needed for the clotting process

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Blood Disorders

  1. Anemia

  2. Sickle cell Anemia

  3. Hemophilia

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Anemia

  • caused by low iron or hemoglobin

–Symptoms: fatigue, dizziness, headaches, shortness of breath

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Sickle cell Anemia

  • recessive genetic disorder

–Symptoms: fatigue, bone pain, ulcers, delayed growth, shortness of breath

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Hemophilia

  • recessive sex-linked bleeding disorder

–Blood lacks clotting factors

–Minor injuries can cause uncontrolled bleeding

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Blood types

  1. ABO blood types

  2. Rh blood types

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ABO blood types

There are 4 blood types, A, B, AB, and O, which are determined by antigens on our blood cells.

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Antigens

substances that trigger an immune response.

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Antigens present

  • Type A blood have A antigens on their cells

  • Type B has B antigens

  • Type AB has both A and B antigens

  • Type O has neither A nor B antigens

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Parents

We inherit our blood type from our ____

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Type O

most common in the United States (45% of the population).

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Type AB

most rare (4% of the population)

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Blood transfusions

can be done using the same blood type or another type that will not trigger an immune response

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Type O

the universal donor

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Type AB

the universal recipient

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Rh Blood Types

A person will also have + or – for their Rh factor.

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Rh Factor

usually does not affect transfusions, but can cause problems for a pregnant woman and the fetus if they have a different Rh phenotype

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Conduction System of the Heart

  • Initiates, stimulates, and coordinates the contraction of the atria and ventricles

–Makes the heart an effective pump

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2 types of Nodal tissue controls the heartbeat

SA (sinotrial) Node

AV (atriocentricular) Node

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SA (sinoatrial) Node

  • found in the right atrium

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0.85 seconds

SA (sinoatrial) Node Initiates the heartbeat every ____

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Pacemaker

SA (sinoatrial) Node serves as the ___

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4 steps to the conduction system of the heart

  1. The SA node sends out an impulse causing the atria to contract.

  2. The impulse reaches the AV node and travels along the AV bundle*.*

  3. The impulses travel throughout the ventricles to the Purkinje fibers.

  4. Ventricles contract.

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The SA node

sends out an impulse causing the atria to contract.

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The impulse

reaches the AV node  and travels along the AV bundle.

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Purkinje fibers

The impulses travel throughout the ventricles to the ____

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Cardiac cycle

includes all the events that occur in one heartbeat

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Heart beats

70x/minute

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L & R atria

contract simultaneously

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Relaxes

Atria ___- then L & R ventricles contract simultaneously

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Systole

Contraction

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Diastole

Relaxation

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Atrial systole

– 0.15 sec

–Atria is systole (contracted) pumping blood into ventricles (diastole-relaxed)

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Ventricle Systole

- 0.30 sec

–Ventricle fills with blood and contracts pumping blood to the aorta and pulmonary arteries

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Atrial & Ventricle Diastole –

- 0.40 sec

–Both atria & ventricles are diastole (relaxed) as blood from the body fills the atria

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Lup

closing of the bicuspid and tricuspid valve

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Dup

closing of aortic and pulmonary valve

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Heart Murmur

any of the heart valves do not close properly

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Electrocardiograms (EKG or ECG)

are used to measure the electrical rhythm of the heart’s contraction

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Arrhythmia

irregular heart beat

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Tachycardia

= more than 100 beats/min

  • Irregular contractions of the atria and/or ventricles due to chaotic electrical signals

  • Result is lack of blood flow to heart

  • Heart rate may be 100-175 bpm at ret

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Bradycardia

= less than 60 beats/min

  • Heart does not pump enough oxygen-rich blood

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Pacemaker

Used to maintain a consistent heart rate when the body’s natural pacemaker (SA node) is not properly functioning

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Vital signs

  1. pulse

  2. blood pressure

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