Anatomy and Physiology - Mr. De Veyra's Topic

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Carbon Dioxide

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166 Terms

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Carbon Dioxide

The by-product of cellular activity is ___________ - considered as a waste product

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Carbon Dioxide

must be expelled from the body through the process of exhalation

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Alveolar Level

The transport of gases is possible which is exchange in respiratory system at the

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CO2 Levels

The respiratory system alters blood pH by changing blood

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7.35-7.45

The blood pH could be maintained at a normal level

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Acidosis

Below 7.35, is considered as

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Alkalosis

More than 7.45, it is alkaline or experiencing

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Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis and Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis

2 Types of Acid-Base Balances

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Compensatory Mechanism

the body’s way of adapting to put the blood pH back to normal

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Carbon Dioxide

a potential acid

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Acidic

Carbon dioxide helps maintain the pH level because part of a component of carbon dioxide is

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Respiratory System

has the power either to control the CO2 exhalation or save CO2 in order to maintain balance when a patient is experiencing alkalosis, it has its way of slowing down respiration

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Hyperventilation

the respiratory rate increases, fast respiration

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Tachypnea

shallow breathing and the body blow off to much CO2 which may experience alkalosis

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Voice Production

Air movement past the vocal cords makes sounds and speech possible

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Olfaction

The sensation of smell occurs when airborne molecules are drawn into the nasal cavity.

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Olfactory Cranial Nerve

help to send signal to the brain so that the brain will automatically translate or interpret the smell

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Innate Community

The respiratory system protects against some microorganisms and other pathogens, such as viruses, by preventing them from entering the body and by removing them from respiratory surfaces.

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Pulmonary Ventilation

Air moves in and out of lungs

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External Respiration

Gas exchange between blood and air at alveoli

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Transport of Respiratory Gases

Between the lungs and the cells of the body

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Oxyhemoglobin

blood that contains oxygen

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Carboxylhemoglobin

blood that contains carbon dioxide

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Internal Respiration

Gas exchange in capillaries between blood and tissue cells

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Metabolism

the utilization of energy by the body

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die

The body’s cells ____ if either the respiratory or cardiovascular system fails.

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Upper Respiratory Tract, Lower Respiratory Tract

The respiratory system has two division:

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Upper Respiratory Tract (ENPL)

consists of the external nose, nasal cavity, the pharynx (throat), and the larynx.

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Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs

The lower respiratory tract consists of

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Conducting Zone

Respiratory passages that carry air to the site of gas exchange

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dryness

If the air is not humidified as it enters the body, it will cause _________ that can cause irritation in many parts of the body.

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Respiratory Zone

Site of gas exchange

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Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Alveolar sacs

Respiratory Zone is composed of

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Nose

the portion wherein the air enters going inside the body

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Olfactory Receptor

Receptor that receives information on what scent you are smelling, and it sends a signal to the brain through the olfactory cranial nerve so that the brain can interpret the kind of smell.

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Nares or Nostrils

the external opening of the nose

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Choanae or Funnels

the opening into the pharynx

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Nasal Septum

divides nasal cavity in midline (to right and left halves)

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Nasal Septum

Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone, vomer and septal cartilage

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Hard Palate

forms the floor of the nasal cavity which separates it from oral cavity

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Conchae

There are three prominent ridges called _______ which are present on the lateral walls on each side of the nasal cavity.

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Vestibule

Lined with skin containing sebaceous and sweat glands and nose hairs

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Nose Hair

helps in filtering the foreign materials like dust particles which enters the body

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Sebaceous and Sweat Glands

help in trapping foreign particles which enters the body

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Small Patch of Olfactory Mucosa, Respiratory Mucosa

2 types of Mucous Membrane:

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Small Patch of Olfactory Mucosa

roof (cribriform plate)

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Respiratory Mucosa

lines most of the cavity

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Cilia

hair-like structures which helps in filtering foreign particles which enters the respiratory trach

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Goblet Cells

produces mucous

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Mucous

sticky in consistency because it helps in trapping foreign particles which enters the respiratory trach

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Mucous Cells

secrete mucous

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Serous Cells

secrete watery fluid with digestive enzymes, e.g. lysozyme

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Nasal Conchae

Increases turbulence of air

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Paranasal Sinuses

Lined by same mucosa as nasal cavity and perform same functions – to produce mucous that would trap foreign particles entering the body

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Sinus

help or influence the quality of voice produced by acting as a resonating chamber

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Paranasal Sinuses

air-filled spaces within the skull

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Sinusitis

inflammation of the mucous membrane of a sinus, especially one or more of the paranasal sinuses

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Frontal sinus, Ethmoidal sinus, Sphenoidal sinus, Maxillary sinus

Four Types of Paranasal Sinuses

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Nasolacrimal Ducts

Carries tears from the eyes, also open into the nasal cavity

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Nasopharynx

the most superior part of the pharynx

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Nasopharynx

Found posterior to the corneal and superior or above to the soft palate

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Nasopharynx

It is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

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Uvula

the posterior extension of the soft palate. It separates the nasopharynx from the oropharynx.

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Pharyngeal Tonsil

helps to defend the body against infection.

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elevated

During swallowing, the soft palate is

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Aspiration

If the food you swallowed enters the respiratory trach, that is called

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Oropharynx

is at the level from the uvula down to the epiglottis

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Oropharynx

it is lined with stratified squamous epithelium which protects it from abrasion

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Palatine Tonsils

are in the lateral walls near the border of the oral cavity and oropharynx

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Lingual Tonsil

located in the surface of the posterior part of the tongue

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Laryngopharynx

Passes posterior to the larynx that extends from the tip of the epiglottis to the esophagus

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Laryngopharynx

Lined with stratified squamous epithelium and ciliated columnar epithelium

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Tonsillectomy

removal of the tonsil

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Epiglottis

posterior to the tongue keeps food out of airway

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Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx

serve as common passageway for food and air

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Larynx

Extends from the level of the 4th to the 6th cervical vertebrae

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Larynx

Inferiorly is continuous with trachea

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Larynx

Attaches to hyoid bone superiorly

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Speech, Breathing, Switching Mechanism

Three Main Functions of Larynx

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3 - paired, 6 - total

There are 9 cartilages, of it are paired ( in total) and 3 unpaired cartilages

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Thyroid Cartilage, Cricoid Cartilage, Epiglottis

Unpaired Cartilages

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Thyroid Cartilage

with laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple) anteriorly

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Thyroid Cartilage

It is attached superiorly to the hyoid bone.

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Cricoid Cartilage

inferior to thyroid cartilage: the only complete ring of cartilage:

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Cricoid Cartilage

signet shaped and wide posteriorly

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Epiglottis

is an elastic cartilage

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Cuneiform, Corniculate Cartilage, Arytenoid Cartilage

Paired Cartilages

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Cuneiform

the top cartilage

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Corniculate Cartilage

the middle cartilage

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Arytenoid Cartilage

the bottom cartilage

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Vestibular Folds (False Vocal Cords), Vocal Folds (true Vocal Cords)

There are two sets of ligaments that extends from the posterior surface of the thyroid cartilage to the paired cartilages

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Vestibular Folds

prevent air from leaving the lungs, as when a person holds his breath

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Vocal Folds

called true vocal cords because the vocal folds are the primary source of voice production

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Intricate and Delicate

the intervention of nerves, there is

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Trachea

Descends: larynx through neck into mediastinum

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Trachea

Divides the thorax into two main (primary) bronchi

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Trachea

Flexible for bending but stays open despite pressure changes during breathing

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Trachea

it is line by pseudostratified columnar epithelium which contains numerous cilia or the hair-like structures and the goblet cells

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Trachealis Muscle

can decrease diameter of trachea

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Esophagus

can expand when food swallowed

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