USGE Unit 1, YGK: Constitutional Anatomy

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120 Terms

1

federalism

a system of government in which two or more governments exercise power over the same people and the same territory

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2

delegated powers

powers the Constitution grants or delegates to the national government

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3

expressed powers

powers directly stated in the constitution

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4

implied powers

powers the government requires to carry out its expressed constitutional powers

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5

reserved powers

powers that belong strictly to the states

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6

concurrent powers

powers that both the national government and the states have

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7

supremacy clause

statement in Article VI of the Constitution establishing that the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and treaties of the United States "shall be the supreme Law of the Land"

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8

enabling act

an act that allows the people of a territory interested in becoming a state to prepare a constitution

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9

federal grant

a sum of money given to a state or local government for a specific purpose

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10

mandate

a formal order given by a higher authority

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11

restraint

an act that limits a state's ability to regulate an area

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12

preemption

the federal government's ability to take over a state government function

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13

extradite

to return a fugitive who flees across state lines back to the original state

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14

interstate compact

a written agreement between two or more states

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15

public policy

the stated course of action the government takes to address problems or issues

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16

sunset law

a law that requires periodic checks of laws or of government agencies to see if they are still needed

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17

sunshine law

a law prohibiting public officials from holding meetings not open to the public

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18

states' rights position

a position that favors state and local action in dealing with problems

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19

nationalist position

a position that favors national action in dealing with problems

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20

article

one of seven main divisions of the body of the Constitution

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21

amendment

A change to the Constitution

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22

enumerated powers

a list of items, found in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, that set forth the authoritative capacity of Congress

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23

elastic clause

clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution that gives Congress the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers expressed in the other clauses of Article I

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24

jurisdiction

the limits or territory within which authority may be exercised

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25

judicial review

the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional

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26

convention

a meeting held for the purpose of proposing and voting on amendments

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27

repeal

to revoke by legislative enactment

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28

incorporation doctrine

the adding of the Bill of Rights protections into the states through court decisions

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29

militias

local group of armed citizens

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30

probable cause

a reasonable basis to believe a person or premises is linked to a crime

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31

eminent domain

Power of a government to take private property for public use.

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32

impeach

to formally accuse

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33

Supremacy Clause

statement in Article VI of the Constitution establishing that the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and treaties of the United States "shall be the supreme Law of the Land"

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34

anarchy

a state without government and laws

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35

government

an institution through which leaders exercise power to make and enforce laws affecting the people under its control

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36

nation

a group of people united by bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, and sometimes religion

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37

state

a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government

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38

sovereignty

the supreme and absolute authority within territorial boundaries

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39

divine right

the idea that people are chosen by a god or gods to rule

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40

social contract

theory that by contract, people surrender to the state the power needed to maintain order and the state, in turn, agrees to protect its citizens

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41

unitary system

A government that gives all key powers to the national or central government

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42

confederacy

A loose union of independent states

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43

federal system

a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments

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44

constitution

a plan that provides the rules for government

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45

constitutional government

a government in which a constitution has authority to place clearly recognized limits on the powers of those who govern

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46

authoritarian

controlling all aspects of citizens' economic, political, and social lives (In class we clarified that these governments may be informally checked by other groups)

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47

totalitarian

a system of government in which the government has total control (In class we clarified that these governments are not checked by other institutions and usually destroy other institutions)

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48

dictatorship

a system of government in which power is in the hands of one person who has total control

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49

oligarchy

a system of government in which a small group holds power

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50

monarchy

a system of government in which a king, queen, or emperor exercises supreme powers of government

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51

democracy

government in which the people rule

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52

republic

a government in which voters hold sovereign power; elected representatives, responsible to the people, exercise that power

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53

economics

the study of how people and nations use their limited resources in attempt to satisfy wants and needs

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54

capitalism

an economic system that emphasizes freedom of choice and individual incentive

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55

free market

an economic system in which buyers and sellers make free choices in the marketplace

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56

free enterprise

the opportunity to control one's own economic decisions

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57

laissez

faire

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58

mixed economy

a system in which the government regulates private enterprise

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59

socialism

an economic system in which the government owns the basic means of production, distributes the products and wages, and provides social services such as health care and welfare

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60

democratic socialist

a socialist who is committed to democracy but wants government involvement in the distribution of wealth

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61

command economy

an economic system in which the government controls the factors of production

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62

bourgeoise

capitalists who own the means of production

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63

proletariat

workers who produce the goods

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64

communism

an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions

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65

limited government

the idea that a government's power is not absolute and there are certain actions a government cannot legally take

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66

representative government

a government in which people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government

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67

charter

a written document from the authorities of a society granting rights or privileges

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68

revenue

the money a government collects from taxes or other sources

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69

embargo

an agreement prohibiting trade

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70

boycott

an organized campaign to refuse to buy certain products

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71

human rights

rights that are believed to belong justifiably to every person

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72

unicameral

A single

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73

currency

a system of money in general use in a particular country.

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74

tariff

a tax on imported goods

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75

creditor

A person to whom money is owed

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76

treaty

a formally concluded and ratified agreement between countries.

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77

bicameral

Two house legislature

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78

interstate comerce

trade between states

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79

extralegal

not allowed by law

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80

The Articles of Confederation

The first governing document of the United States

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81

Constitution

A written plan of government with limits on what a government can and cannot legally do

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82

Bill of Rights

A document listing certain protections that citizens have from governmental action

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83

Virginia Plan

A proposed constitution where representation was based on state population

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84

New Jersey Plan

A proposed constitution where representation was equal for all states

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85

List of Grievances

The section of the Declaration of Independence listing reasons for revolution against the monarchy

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86

Declaration of Independence

Statement issued by the Second Continental Congress

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87

Second Continental Congress

Group that organized the continental Army and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence

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88

First Continental Congress

Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence

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89

Shays' Rebellion

The event which led many Americans to want a stronger national government

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90

Federalists

A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates who wanted a strong national government

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91

Anti

Federalists

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92

Article I

Defines Congress, its powers and its structure

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93

Article I, Section 8

Specific listing of Congressional powers, including the necessary and proper clause

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94

Article II

Defines the presidency, its powers and its duties

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95

Article III

Defines the jurisdiction of a judicial branch and promises lifetime appointments for federal judges

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96

Article IV

Defines the relationship between states including the full faith and credit clause and the privileges and immunities clause

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97

Article V

Defines the process for amending the Constitution

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98

Article VI

Includes the supremacy clause which establishes the Constitution as the highest law of the land

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99

Article VII

Defines how the Constitution was to be ratified

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100

First Amendment

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

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