CSD 251 exam 1

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https://quizlet.com/230492416/csd-251-exam-1-flash-cards/?i=4xtkw2&x=1jqt

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communication

an active process involving the encoding, transmission and decoding of information and ideas between individuals

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transmission

how is the message conveyed?

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decoding

other parties ability to understand

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encoding

convert information from one system to another

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verbal communication

complex process involving all the anatomical/ physiological subsystems of the speech production and processing system

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3 reasons SLPs need to study anatomy

communication is very complex and can only be fully understood and appreciated by an understanding of normal anatomy, clinical management, work with interdisciplinary terms

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anatomy

the study of the structure on an organism, and the relation of its parts

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physiology

the study of the normal function or vital processes of living organisms

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anatomic position

standing erect, facing observer, eyes front, arms at sides and palms of hands and tips of feet directed forward

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supine

face up

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prone

face down

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periferal

outward part of surface or organ

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ventral

belly (away from back bone) towards front

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dorsal

back(towards backbone) back of body

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anterior

"before" towards front, away from back

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posterior

"behind" towards back, away from front

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superficial

towards surface "superior"

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deep

away from surface "inferior"

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superior

upper/above "superficial"

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inferior

lower/below "deep"

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cranial

towards the head (skull)

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caudal

towards the tail, away from head, usually restricted to the trunk

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rostral

often used instead of anterior when describing parts of the brain towards the tip of the frontal lobe

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medial

towards the midline axis of the body or structure

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lateral

away from midline axis of the body or structure

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proximal

toward the body or point of attachment

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distal

away from body or point of attachment

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parasagittal plane

any plane which runs parallel to the sagittal plane but is away from midline

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frontal/coronal plane

vertical cut, made at ight angles to the medial plane, dividing the body into anterior and posterior halves/ portions

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transverse/ horizontal plane

horizontal cut made at right angle to the axis of the body dividing it into upper and lower portions

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brain and spinal cord

2 main structures of the CNS

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motor outputs

always flow out, never into the nervous system

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sensory input

always flow in towards nervous system

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CNS

responsible for mediation of all voluntary/ involuntary activity

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12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves

2 structures of the PNS

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autonomic nervous system ANS

involved with involuntary life processes, stuff that happens automatically (blood pressure, gland secretion, digestion)

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somatic nervous system SNS

involved with production of observable events and reception of environmental changes- not automatically we have some degree of control

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motor, sensory

2 divisions of SNS

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motor

responsible for bodily functions that are under out conscious/ voluntary control

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pyramidal, extrapyramidal

2 divisions of the motor component of SNS

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pyramidal

initiation of voluntary motor acts

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extrapyramidal

responsible for background tone and movement supporting the primary motor acts (refines the motion started by pyramidal- how fast do u want to throw the ball)

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sensory

provides us with information about the function of the skeletal muscles, the environment and nonviseral actives

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neuron

basic unit of the nervous system, unique because it has the ability to receive, transit, and process information

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cell body, axon, dendrites

what is a neuron composed of

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cell body

aka soma, composed of protoplasm bounded by a thin, semi-permeable membrane, functions to keep the cell alive (carried out metabolism, etc. to maintain life of the cell)

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axon

single long efferent process which conducts nerve impulse away from the cell body, typically to another neuron, muscle, or gland

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dendrites

multiple, short, A-pherent extension of the cell body, responsible for convey impulses towards the cell body

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A-pherent

something is being conducted towards

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E-pherent

something is conducted away

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dendrite tree

arrangement of the dendrites, looks like a tree without leaves

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axon hillock

point at which the axon joins the soma, axons remain single processes until their point of termination- once terminated the axon branches out to become telodendria

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telodendria

plays a role in synaptic transmission

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bouton

important because it contains structures known as synaptic vesicles

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synaptic vesicles

storage units for near-transmitters unless nerve is activated the euro-transmissitters aren't active

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myelin

extends from axon hillock to the terminal bouton, a fat-like substance insulates the axon

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oliodendrites

CNS myelin is formed by

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neurolimal/ shwane cells

PNS myelin is formed by

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nodes of ranvier

serrate the myelin purpose and they speed up neural transmission

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nervous system development

what does the process of myelination correlate to

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unipolar neuron

a single process that divides into 2 branches that are structurally identical, both processes are icons and they function E-pherent

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bipolar neuron

intends off both poles, multiple axon extensions coming off the singular pol/ multiple dendrite extensions from other pole

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stereotypical neuron

large # of relatively short dendrites, a single long axon

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nerves

PNS, carry multiple types of information, sensory, motor, or both

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tracts

CNS, only have a single function, they are either sensory or motor, can't be both

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neural transmission

way neural impulses get from one part of the body to the next, electrochemical charge, sodium potassium flow in and out of nerve, creates a static charge

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inhibitory effect

someone neurotransmitters have this, if they do have this there is decreased tissue stimulation, impulses pass from one structure to the next at a slower speed, post synaptic structure has a decreased level of reaction

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excitatory effect

increase on tissue stimulation, impulses cross the cleft quicker, higher level of reaction

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neural-glial cells

in the CNS the non-nervous tissue is known as

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neural-lima cells

PNS non nervous tissue known as

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phagocytes

role is to consume necrotic tissue in the nervous system, consume dead neurons and replace them

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brain

enlargement specialized portion of the spinal cord, makes us human because of our higher level thought processes, complex language system

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left hemisphere

hemisphere dominant for speech and language, specialized for process of analysis, favors discrete, sequential, rapidly changing information

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right hemisphere

hemisphere favors spacial, holistic elements, looks at things asa whole, emotions, face recognition, prosody, melody, art and music

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telencephalon

largest part of the brain, composed of 2 highly convoluted cerebral hemispheres

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longitudinal fissure

separates the 2 hemispheres

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corpus callosum

joins 2 hemispheres together and allows 3 hemispheres to communicate, allows activity to be integrated

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cerebral hemisphere

anatomically composed of a cortex and subcortical structures

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cortex

outter covering of the brain comprised of grey matter

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grey matter

neural tissue in the CNS composed of nerve cell bodies, where functional processing occurs

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white matter

neural tissue is CNS composed of myelinated processes or axons, communication link to and from grey

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wrinkling of the brain

increases functional area of the brain

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gyride

actual functional areas, separated by groves aka salkie

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salkie

set of landmarks, serve as landmarks we talk about them in relations to salkus

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frontal lobe

important for planning and initiation of voluntary actions, and movement. bounded posteriorly by central salkus, inferiorly by lateral salkus, includes several functional areas.

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pre central gyrus

primary motor cortex, motor strip,

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motor strip

broadmans #4, activated muscles on opposite sides of the body

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hummoculus

graphic depiction of human body

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pre-motor cortex

broadmans #6, lies anteriorly to pre central salkus, responsible for complex, skilled movement, speech production, hand-eye coordination

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prefrontal cortex

broadmans #10-12, biologically correlates of intelligence, reasoning, abstract thinking, decision making, planning, self-monitoring, pragmatic behaviors

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broca's area

broadmans #44, motor speech area, responsible for tongue and jaw movement, vocal fold movement, any structures movement needed for speech production

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parietal lobe

reception site for semantic senses, responsible for interpretation and elaboration of sensory experiences

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postcentral gyrus, angular gyrus

2 major areas of the parietal lobe

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postcentral gyrus

primary sensory cortex, broadmans #1-3

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sensory strip

receive and interpret sensory information from opposite side of the body

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angular gyrus

boradmans#39 comprehension of written material

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temporal lobe

auditory reception, receptive language processing

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heschal's gyrus, wernikes area

2 functional areas of the temporal lobe

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heschal's gyrus

primary auditory cortex, boradmans#41, found on superior temporal salkus, facing lateral salkus, responsible for auditory reception and processing

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