Feeds Exam 3

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

The average body condition score of a mare at foaling should be __________

1 / 211

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

212 Terms

1

The average body condition score of a mare at foaling should be __________

6-7

New cards
2

What feeding scenario for lactating dairy cows would cause the fat content in milk to be reduced?

a reduction in the particle size of the forage used in the diet

New cards
3

What is the recommended minimum amount of forage that a 1000 lb horse should consume?

10 lb (1% of BW)

New cards
4

Dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet will have a HIGHER rumen concentration of _______ than diary cows fed a high-roughage diet

propionic acid

New cards
5

Adding fat to the supplement of a horse will cause the protein to calorie ratio to _________

decrease

New cards
6

The essential amino acid requirements per unit of energy are lowest for which of the following?

exercising horses

lactating mares

late pregnant mares

nursing foals

exercising horses

New cards
7

A low concentration of blood _________ in lactating dairy cows is associated with milk fever

calcium

New cards
8

T/F: Feeding forages that are too high in potassium to dry dairy cows can increase the incidence of milk fever

true

New cards
9

What is the correct ranking of physiological priorities (highest to lowest) for phase III lactating cows?

reproduction > growth > maintenance > lactation

New cards
10

What is the correct ranking of physiological priorities (highest to lowest) for phase II lactating cows?

reproduction > lactation > growth > maintenance

New cards
11

What is the correct ranking of physiological priorities (highest to lowest) for phase I lactating cows?

lactating > reproduction > growth > maintenance

New cards
12

Which of the following forages are generally safe to feed to horses without potential toxicity problems?

sorghum hay

fescue hay

bermudagrass hay

kleingrass hay

bermudagrass hay

New cards
13

T/F: compared to corn, wheat is MORE likely to cause milk fat depression in dairy cows

true

New cards
14

Which group of pigs has a lower dietary requirement for essential amino acids?

non-paylean fed pigs

paylean fed pigs

non-paylean fed pigs

New cards
15

What amino acids are considered to be essential amino acids in a swine diet?

lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan

New cards
16

What is relative lysine value?

concentration of lysine in the protein for a given feed, compared to that of SBM

New cards
17

What is the most commonly used energy feed in finishing hog rations in the US?

corn

New cards
18

Which of the following grain sources would most likely cause milk fat depression in lactating dairy cows?

milo

whole corn

steam-flaked corn

rolled oats

steam-flaked corn

New cards
19

Which feed would have the “best” roughage value for use in lactating dairy cow rations?

long-stem alfalfa hay

New cards
20

The metabolic precursor for the synthesis of milk fat is?

acetic acid

New cards
21

During the 1st stage of milk production dairy cows are typically in a _________ energy balance situation, whereas during the 3rd stage of production cows are typically in a _________ energy balance situation

negative; positive

New cards
22

During the 2nd stage of lactation ________ has the highest physiological priority, while _________ has the lowest physiological priority

reproduction; maintenance

New cards
23

Feeding fat to pigs will _________ feed intake and ________ the heat increment

decrease; decrease

New cards
24

For lactating diary cow producing 80 lbs of milk in the 1st phase of lactation, which physiological function will require the most feed energy?

lactation

New cards
25

Of the total feed required to produce hogs (conception to slaughter), what proportion is used by market hogs (weaning to slaughter)?

80%

New cards
26

Roughage value is a measure of ________

time a cow chews per kg of feed

New cards
27

Which 2 nutrients are causing the most problems with regards to environmental concerns of concentrated animal feeding operations?

nitrogen and phosphorus

New cards
28

For a horse exercising at a moderate level, its DE requirement would be ____% higher compared to a mature idle horse

40

New cards
29

T/F: Including fat in a pig’s diet will reduce the heat increment

true

New cards
30

T/F: In formulating grain mixed for pigs, one should maintain at least 1:1 Ca:P ratio

true

New cards
31

T/F: The proportion of available lysine is lower in cottonseed meal than in soybean meal

true

New cards
32

T/F: Effective fiber is the property of a feed that causes a cow to chew

true

New cards
33

T/F: Protein requirements are higher for large-frame growing steers than small-frame growing steers

true

New cards
34

T/F: Including phytase enzyme in a pig’s diet will reduce the total phosphorus needed in the diet

true

New cards
35

T/F: The acetic acid concentration will increase as the proportion of grain in the diet decreases

true

New cards
36

T/F: Urea contains 45% nitrogen and 6.25% crude protein equivalence

false

New cards
37

Which of the following protein supplements has the LOWEST relative lysine value?

cottonseed meal

fish meal

corn gluten meal

peanut meal

canola meal

corn gluten meal

New cards
38

Which of the following protein supplements has the HIGHEST relative lysine value?

cottonseed meal

fish meal

corn gluten meal

peanut meal

canola meal

fish meal

New cards
39

What is the correct range for the Ca:P ratio for diets fed to horses and pigs?

1:1 to 1.5:1

New cards
40

The protein:calorie ratio requirement is highest for:

mature exercising horses

lactating mares

late-gestation pregnant mares

weanling horses

lactating mares

New cards
41

You have formulated a high-grain feedlot ration that contains 2% urea. What is the total crude protein equivalent value of this ration?

5.6% crude protein equivalents

New cards
42

In horses, amino acids from microbial protein synthesized from urea will be absorbed from the ________

will not be absorbed

New cards
43

Assuming optimal microbial fermentation conditions, 1 lb of urea has the potential to be converted into _____ lbs of microbial protein

2.81

New cards
44

During phase V, it is recommended that the ration be formulated for the correct dietary cation anion balance (DCAB) to help prevent milk fever. What 4 nutrients are used to calculate DCAB?

sodium, potassium, sulfur, chloride

New cards
45

What are the 2 strategies used to prevent milk fever in dairy cows?

  1. feed low-calcium diets during the dry period (period IV)

  2. feed a negative DCAB during the transition period (period V)

New cards
46

What are 2 effective nutritional management strategies that can be used to prevent ketosis in dairy cows?

supplement cows with extra niacin during phase I

limit energy intake during phase IV to ensure that cows are not too fat at calving

New cards
47

The rule of thumb in feeding supplements to horses to prevent digestive upsets is not to feed more than _____ of the horses body weight per meal

0.5%

New cards
48

Urea is best used in ______ diets with lots of ________

high-grain; starch CHO

New cards
49

Urea is best used in diets that have more ________

RUP

New cards
50

Which situation would urea be most effectively used in ruminant diets?

ruminants fed high-grain diets

ruminants fed high-roughage diets

high-grain diet

New cards
51

Which situation would urea be most effectively used in ruminant diets?

ruminants fed diets with fish meal

ruminants fed diets with soybean meal

diet with fish meal

New cards
52

Mixing oat grain in with a commercial feed supplement (1:1 oats/supplement) that was formulated to meet requirements for growing horses will cause the Ca:P ratio to _____

decrease

New cards
53

List 5 strategies that can be used to reduce environmental impact of excess manure nitrogen from pig production operations

  1. formulate diets based on EAA requirements rather than CP

  2. formulate diets based on bioavailable EAA rather than total EAA

  3. use synthetic EAA to meet EAA requirements, but with less total CP in the diet

  4. use paylean

  5. use GMO corn or SBM with increased protein quality

New cards
54

List 5 strategies that can be used to reduce environmental impact of excess manure phosphorus from pig production operations

  1. do not formulate diets to contain excess phosphorus

  2. formulate diets based on bioavailable phosphorus rather than total phosphorus

  3. use feeds with higher bioavailability of phosphorus

  4. use feed additives containing phytase enzyme to increase the bioavailability of phytate P and reduce fecal P losses

  5. use GMO corn or SBM that express phytase to enable increased absorption of P

New cards
55

What nutritional strategies can be used to reduce environmental impact of excess manure in both nitrogen and phosphorus form pig production operations?

implement phase feeding or split-sex feeding management systems, use GMO corn or SBM

New cards
56

Which class of horse would have the lowest CP:DE or Lysine:DE ratios?

mature or exercising horse

New cards
57

Which class of horse would have the highest CP:DE or Lysine:DE ratios?

nursing or weanling horse/lactating mares

New cards
58

List 2 b-complex vitamins that are most likely to be deficient in horses

thiamine and biotin

New cards
59

List 3 factors that influence the net energy requirements for growth in growing lambs

  1. frame size

  2. body weight

  3. rate of gain per day

New cards
60

Factors that cause the proportion of fat in the growth to increase will ______ NEg requirements

increase

New cards
61

Assuming that corn gluten meal and fish meal have equal protein concentrations, and similar RUP values, which of these feeds would be best to include in a dairy cow diet to ensure that amino acid requirements are being met?

fish meal

New cards
62

Which ewes are most susceptible to getting pregnancy toxemia?

late pregnant ewes with twin fetuses

New cards
63

Which ewes have the highest CP to energy ratio?

early lactating ewes nursing twin lambs

New cards
64

Heat increment is highest for _________, intermediate for ________, and lowest for _________ in dairy cows

fiber; starch; fat

New cards
65

ME from roughages ________ heat increment so the NE value ________ in dairy cows

increases; decreases

New cards
66

ME from grains _______ heat increment so the NE value ________ in dairy cows

decreases; increases

New cards
67

ME from rendered fat ________ heat increment so the NE value _________

extremely decreases; extremely increases

New cards
68

What affects the NE value of feeds?

nutrient composition, physiological function of the animal

New cards
69

Feeds high in fiber have ______ fecal, methane, and HI losses compared to feeds high in starch

more

New cards
70

HI associated with ME use is ______ in growing animals

high

New cards
71

HI associated with ME use is _______ in lactating animals

lower

New cards
72

Heat increment is highest when ME is used for _______ and lowest when used for __________

growth; maintenance/lactation

New cards
73

ME used for growth ________ HI so the NEg value ________

increases; decreases

New cards
74

ME used for maintenance _________ HI so the NEm value ________

decreases; increases

New cards
75

ME for lactation ________ HI so the NEl value _________

decreases; increases

New cards
76

T/F: Corn grain has a HIGHER net energy value for maintenance, lactation, and growth than poor-quality hay

true

New cards
77

How can one successfully meet nutrient demands of a high-producing dairy cow?

rely on cow’s increase in appetite (higher DM intake), increase the nutrient density of the lactation diet, rely on mobilization of cow’s body tissue

New cards
78

What is phase 1 of dairy cow production?

early lactation 0-10 weeks, peak milk production occurring between weeks 3-6, cow in negative energy balance

New cards
79

What is phase 2 of dairy cow production?

mid lactation 10-24 weeks, milk yield starts to decrease, peak DMI between weeks 11-13, cow in neutral energy balance

New cards
80

What is phase 3 of dairy cow production?

late lactation > 24 weeks, milk yield still decreasing, cow regains body tissue reserves, cow in positive energy balance

New cards
81

What is phase 4 of dairy cow production?

dry period 5-8 weeks, late pregnancy with rapid fetal growth, cow in positive energy balance

New cards
82

What is phase 5 of dairy cow production?

transition period 2-3 weeks, dry period, late pregnancy but cow preparing for lactation, cow in positive energy balance

New cards
83

The dilemma in feeding lactating dairy cows is that feeding a _______ diet will enable more milk production, but too much dietary _______ may damage ______ and ________ due to inadequate intake of dietary _______

high-grain; starch; rumen papillae; depress milk fat; fiber

New cards
84

High roughage diets cause an increase in _______

saliva production, rumination time, and rumen pH

New cards
85

In high grain diets, there are ______ microbes, a ________ rumen pH, and more of which VFA?

more starch-loving; lower; propionate

New cards
86

In high forage diets, there are _________ microbes, a ________ rumen pH, and more of which VFA?

more fiber-loving; higher; acetate

New cards
87

How does an inadequate dietary fiber level depress milk fat synthesis?

decreased rumination time, saliva production, rumen buffer production, rumen pH, dietary fiber digestion, and acetic acid production

New cards
88

Milk fat synthesis as ________ is the metabolic precursor

acetic acid

New cards
89

To maintain adequate fiber levels in lactating dairy cow diets, diet must have a minimum forage:concentrate ratio of _____, minimum of _____% ADF, and minimum of ______% of BW as forage

40:60; 21; 1-1.5

New cards
90

Effective fiber of a feed is dependent on _________

particle size, amount of chemical fiber, type of fiber

New cards
91

What is roughage value determined by and how is it expressed?

amount of time a cow spends chewing; min chewing/unit of feed DM

New cards
92

Does fine, medium, or coarse particle size of a ration increase rumen pH, acetate production, and milk fat %?

coarse

New cards
93

What are the short-term benefits of including adequate levels of effective fiber in the lactating cow diet?

increased rumination, saliva production, rumen pH, fiber-loving microbes, acetic acid production

New cards
94

What are the long-term benefits of including adequate levels of effective fiber in the lactating cow diet?

prevents acidosis, maintains integrity of rumen epithelial tissue, prevents rumen burnout

New cards
95

What factors affect milk composition?

type of grain, grain processing, dietary buffers, dietary fats

New cards
96

Cows fed grains which have ______ rates of rumen starch fermentation are more likely to have depressed milk fat

faster

New cards
97

What is the hierarchy for types of grain that are more likely to cause depressed milk fat?

wheat, barley, corn = sorghum

New cards
98

The ________ a grain is processed the faster the rate of rumen starch fermentation

more

New cards
99

What is the hierarchy of grain processes that are more likely to cause depressed milk fat?

steam-flaking, cracked = dry-rolled, whole

New cards
100

Adding buffers to the diet will ______ rumen pH and help minimize milk fat depression

increase

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 214 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 53 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard296 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 83 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)