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What resources does the earth have that make it suitable for life?

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118 Terms

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What resources does the earth have that make it suitable for life?

Matter

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Energy from the sun

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The Big Bang Theory

Universe started as a singularity, initially so hot and dense that the laws of physics as we know them did not apply.

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Rapid expansion (explosion) of the universe allowed fundamental forces of physics to separate, matter to form.

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Doppler Effect

Objects moving towards the observer have shorter wavelength

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Objects moving away from the observer have a longer wavelength

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When the star is moving away from the starlight it is called?

red-shifted

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how does the universe sounds like we would expect from the big bang theory

Cosmic microwave background radiation (not actually sound- but easy to remember as the background "hiss" of static)

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The most common element in the universe

hydrogen(-90%) and helium (-9%)

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what is the simplest form of matter

Hydrogen: 1 proton and 1 ecetron

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estimated age of the universe

13.8 billion years

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Solar Nebular Hypothesis

a belief that the solar system began as a cloud of interstellar dust and gas, known as a nebula, that started to spin and condense into a solar system.

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The hypothesis states: Solar systems start as nebular clouds that collapse in on itself.

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what is the age of the earth

4.6 billion years

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what is a system

Any part of the universe that we can isolate for study

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what is a model

A simplified representation of something used to organize information in manageable forms

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what are the characteristics of a system?

Boundaries

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Inputs and outputs

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Cycles

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Dynamic interactions

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isolated system

matter and energy can't enter

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closed system

matter can enter but not energy

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open system

open to both matter and energy

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is the earth an open or closed system

closed system

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what is a cycle

A cycle is a process or series of events that repeats regularly

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Examples: water cycle, air cycle

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what are the basics of a geochemical cycle

reservoirs, fluxes and residence time

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reservoirs

a place where the matter accumulates

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fluxes

rate of transfer of matter from one reservoir to another

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residence time

the amount of time an average "piece" of matter (molecule, atom) resides in the reservoir.

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How is residence time calculated?

Amount of matter in reservoir / removal rate(or supply rate)

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what is a steady state

Removal=Supply

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Positive coupling:

same direction of change in linked components

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negative coupling

opposition direction of change in linked components.

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Feedback loops

Couplings create feedback loops. When a change in one part of a system produces an effect that can further alter the first part of the system.

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Positive feedback

this amplifies the initial change

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negative feedback

opposes the initial change

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38

two forms of energy

Potential Energy (stored: such as water in water tower)

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Kinetic Energy

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Potential Energy: Energy that is stored in system, can take the form of

chemical energy, nuclear energy, stored mechanical energy, gravitational energy

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chemical energy

energy is required to break bonds, it is released when bonds are formed. Energy from heating food or fuel source.

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nuclear energy

radioactive decay, nuclear reactions (Fission:splitting atoms, Fusion: combining atoms to form a single atom).

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stored mechanical energy

Energy stored in objects by the application of force

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Gravitational Energy

roller coasters is an example of this

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Kinetic energy:

energy of motion, expressed through movement of electrons, atoms, molecules and objects.

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examples of kinetic energy

motion, radiant energy, thermal energy, electrical energy and sound

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radiant energy

comes in the form of waves, shorter the wavelength the higher the amount of energy, light is a form of radiant energy.

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thermal energy

heat is change in energy, temperature measure of molecular speed.

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latent heat

amount of energy required to change the state of matter)

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electrical energy

movement of electrons along a metal wire.

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51

For Earth's temperature to be stable over long periods of time, incoming energy and outgoing energy have to be equal. this state of balance is called?

radiative equilibrium.

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The sun is a star that produces heat as a result of

thermonuclear reactions(fusion)

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Internal Energy Sources

Radiogenic heat (50-90%)

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Accretionary heat

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Tidal heating (friction)( -0.5%)

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Core formation

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Net Radiation

balance between incoming short-wave energy from the sun and all outgoing radiation from the Earth.

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Nucleosynthesis:

the element formation in stars

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The chemical behavior of an atom is determined by

the distribution of electrons in electron shells

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Groups

elements in a vertical column that have the same number of electrons in their valence shell and this have similar properties.

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A covalent bond

the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms, the shared electrons count as part of each atom's valence shell.

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Polar covalent bonds

one atom is more electronegative, and the atoms do not share the electron equally.

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Hydrogen bonds

This forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom.

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Law Thermal Expansion

As materials warm, they expand, this is true of solids liquids and gasses

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which is more dense and thin, continental crust or oceanic crust

continental crust

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Modern theory: Plate tectonics

The outer solid portion of the earth is composed of rigid plates that slowly move over the underlying mantle.

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1912: Wegener's Continental Drift Hypothesis

The continents were once united into a single supercontinent called Pangaea, meaning all earth in ancient Greek. He suggested that Pangaea broke up long ago and that the continents then moved to their current positions.

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World War II prompted 2 major technological advances

Sonar- depth of the seafloor(bathymetry)

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Magnetometers- great for detecting metal hulls of submarines or the magnetic signature of rocks on the seafloor.

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who proposed a theory on seafloor spreading?

Harry Hess, Naval officer in WWII

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paleomagnetism

Magnetic minerals in lavas alien with local magnetic girls when they cool

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Lithosphere(stronger)

crust+uppermost mantle = tectonic plate

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Asthenosphere

layer in the upper mantle

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Divergent boundary

at divergent plate boundaries he two plates are moving away from one another

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Convergent boundary

the two plates are moving towards each other

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Transform boundary

the two plates are sliding past each other

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what causes earthquakes

Solid portion of the earth causes friction and the rocks break

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what causes volcanoes to erupt

when the earth is generate new crust

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Some examples of various plate tectonic processes

subduction, volcanism, oceanic ridge spreading, mountain building, rift formation.

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convergent plate boundaries

subduction, ocean-ocean, ocean-continent

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subduction

one plate is pushed into the mantle

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Ocean- ocean

island arcs which is a chain of volcanic islands form behind a trench

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ocean-continent

ocean crust subducts under less dense continental crust

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are there more big earthquakes or small ones

small earthquakes

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Where do the biggest earthquakes occur?

We tend to see the biggest earthquakes on convergent plate boundaries. They are so strong that they move the ocean and generate tsunamis.

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Compression /primary (p-waves)

Rock pushed or pulled forward or backward

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Oscillation of particle parallel to wave direction

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Fastest seismic waves

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Travel through all layers of the earth

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Shear /secondary (s-waves)

Rock is shaken or whipped

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Oscillation of particle perpendicular to wave direction

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Second fastest seismic wave. cannot travel through air water or molten rock because liquids flow toto easily and cannot sustain shear forces.

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Shadow Zone

is an area where a seismic wave cannot be detected after it has passed through the earth.

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This is how we know the earth has an outer core.

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seismometer

detects P, S and L waves.

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Measure how much energy has been released by the earthquake.

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Measure the arrival time of P, S and L waves

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what is the intersection where the circles meet on the map known as?

epicenter of earthquake

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Lava Hazards

Not the most hazardous volcanic emission.

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100

Damages property but generally moves slowly so people can get out of the way. Dangerous to infrastructure.

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