Pharmacology test 4

studied byStudied by 6 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What is the vascular phase in inflammation?

1 / 169

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

170 Terms

1

What is the vascular phase in inflammation?

Associated with vasodilation and increased capillary permeability; fluid and blood substances move to injured site

New cards
2

What is the delayed phase in inflammation?

Leukocytes infiltrate inflamed tissue

New cards
3

What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?

Redness, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of function

New cards
4

What classes of drugs fall under anti-inflammatory?

NSAIDS, corticosteroids, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and anti-gout drugs

New cards
5

What is the action of NSAIDS?

Inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, inhibit platelet aggregation, mimic effects of corticosteroids, inhibit COX enzymes

New cards
6

What two effects do NSAIDS have?

Analgesic (pain) and Antipyretic (fever)

New cards
7

What do COX enzymes do?

Convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandins

New cards
8

What does COX-1 do?

Protects stomach lining and regulates blood platelets

New cards
9

What does COX-2 do?

Triggers inflammation and pain

New cards
10

What is gout?

Inflammatory disease of joints, tendons, and other tissues

New cards
11

What drug falls under salicylates?

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)

New cards
12

How do you discontinue corticosteroids?

Taper off over 5-10 days

New cards
13

What drug falls under disease modifying anti-rheumatics?

Infliximab

New cards
14

What ending does disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs have?

“MAB”

New cards
15

What is the therapeutic level for salicylate?

15-30 mg/dL

New cards
16

What foods contain salicylates?

Prunes, raisins, licorice, seasonings like curry and paprika

New cards
17

Why can’t you give a pregnant woman aspirin in the third trimester?

Ductus arteriosus closes early in the baby

New cards
18

What are the side effects for aspirin?

Tinnitus, hearing loss, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hepatotoxicity, hypersensitivity

New cards
19

What drug falls under para-chlorobenzoic acid?

Indomethacin

New cards
20

Is indomethacin 99% protein bound? What do we need to monitor?

Yes; monitor labs

New cards
21

What are the side effects of indomethacin?

Sodium and water retention, hypertension

New cards
22

What drugs falls under phenylacetic acid derivatives?

Diclofenace sodium and ketorolac

New cards
23

What are the side effects of ketorolac?

Weakness, stroke

New cards
24

Is ketorolac used for long or short term pain?

Short term

New cards
25

What drug falls under propionic acid derivatives?

Ibuprofen, naproxen, ketaprophen

New cards
26

What drugs fall under antigout?

Colchine, allopurinol, febuxostat, probenecid

New cards
27

What is the action of colchine?

Inhibits migration of leukocytes to inflamed sites → inflammatory response

New cards
28

What are the types of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs?

GI distress

New cards
29

What are the side effects of infliximab?

fever, infection, elevated hepatic enzymes, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia

New cards
30

What drug falls under fenamates?

Meclofenamate

New cards
31

What kind of pain is meclofenamate used to treat?

Menstrual pain

New cards
32

What are the side effects of meclofenamate?

Tinnitus, pruritus, edema, renal dysfunction, elevated hepatic enzymes, stroke

New cards
33

What history does a nurse need to assess for before administering meclofenamate?

History of peptic ulcer

New cards
34

What drug falls under oxicams?

Meloxicam

New cards
35

What enzyme is meloxicam selective to?

COX-2

New cards
36

What are the side effects for meloxicam?

Insomnia, edema, renal dysfunction, angioedema, elevated hepatic enzymes, stroke

New cards
37

What drug falls under selective COX-2 inhibitors?

Celecoxib

New cards
38

What drug does celecoxib have similar agents to?

Nabumetone

New cards
39

What are the side effects of celecoxib?

Sinusitis, hypertension, peripheral edema, renal dysfunction

New cards
40

What drugs fall under corticosteroids?

Prednisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone

New cards
41

How do corticosteroids control inflammation?

Suppress/prevent the components of the inflammatory process

New cards
42

How do you discontinue corticosteroids?

Taper off over 5-10 days

New cards
43

What drug falls under disease modifying anti-rheumatics?

Infliximab

New cards
44

What ending does disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs have?

“MAB”

New cards
45

What are the types of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs?

Immunosuppressive agents, immunomodulators, antimalarial

New cards
46

What are the side effects of infliximab?

fever, infection, elevated hepatic enzymes, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia

New cards
47

What is gout?

Inflammatory disease of joints, tendons, and other tissues

New cards
48

Where does gout usually occur?

Big toe

New cards
49

Purine metabolism leads to what kind of acid accumulation in gout?

Uric acid

New cards
50

What foods contain purine?

Organ meats, sardines, gravy, liver, alcohol (beer)

New cards
51

What drug falls under non-opioid analgesics?

Acetaminophen

New cards
52

What yearly exam should the nurse advise the patient to receive on allopurinol?

Eye exam

New cards
53

What is the action of probenecid?

Uricosurics, blocks reabsorption of uric acid which promotes its excretion

New cards
54

What are the side effects of probenecid?

Flushed skin, headache, sore gums, GI distress, kidney stones, severe blood dyscrasias

New cards
55

What is the action of allopurinol?

Uric acid inhibitor, decrease uric acid synthesis, not anti-inflammatory

New cards
56

What are the side effects of allopurinol?

Dizziness, headache, dry mouth , GI distress, arthralagia, bradycardia, hyperglycemia, blood dyscrasia, Steven-Johnson syndrome

New cards
57

Where do opioid analgesics work in the body?

Central nervous system

New cards
58

What are common side effects of all opioid analgesics?

Drowsiness, headache, dizziness

New cards
59

What drugs fall under opioid analgesics?

Codeine and morphine

New cards
60

What drug can probenecid be given with?

Colchicinet

New cards
61

Can codeine be mixed with other drugs?

Yes

New cards
62

Is acetaminophen a NSAID?

No

New cards
63

What is the maximum dose of acetaminophen a day?

4 g/day; 2 g/day for frequent use

New cards
64

What are the side effects of acetaminophen?

Rash, headache, insomnia, rare GI distress

New cards
65

What is the antidote for acetaminophen?

IV acetylcystine

New cards
66

Where do non-opioid analgesics work in the body?

Peripheral nervous system

New cards
67

Where do opioid analgesics work in the body?

Central nervous system

New cards
68

What are common side effects of all opioid analgesics?

Drowsiness, headache, dizziness

New cards
69

What drugs fall under opioid analgesics?

Codeine and morphine

New cards
70

What is codeine used for?

Mild to moderate pain; antitussive

New cards
71

Can codeine be mixed with other drugs?

Yes

New cards
72

What are the side effects of codeine?

Anxiety, euphoria, insomnia, fatigue, constipation

New cards
73

What is the use for morphine?

Acute pain (MI’s, cancer pain, severe pain)

New cards
74

What are the side effects of morphine?

Respiratory depression, constipation, GI distress, orthostatic hypotension, psychological dependence, miosis, blurred vision

New cards
75

What is the antidote for opioids?

Naloxone

New cards
76

Why are PCA pumps liked by patients?

Patient controlled and near-constant analgesic level

New cards
77

What kind of pain control do transdermal routes provide?

Continuous pain control

New cards
78

What can adjuvant therapies be used along with?

Nonopioid and opioid drugs

New cards
79

What are the different types of adjuvant analgesics?

Anticonvulsants, antidepressants, corticosteroids, antidysrhythmics, local aesthetics

New cards
80

What drug falls under opioid agonist- antagonists?

Nalbuphine

New cards
81

What is hydromorphone used for?

Pain; 6 times more potent than morphine

New cards
82

What are the side effects of hydromorphone?

Miosis, respiratory depression, urinary retention, constipation; fewer hypnotic effects and less GI distress than morphine

New cards
83

What is the use for morphine?

Acute pain (MI’s, cancer pain, severe pain)

New cards
84

What are the side effects of morphine?

Respiratory depression, constipation, GI distress, orthostatic hypotension, psychological dependence, miosis, blurred vision

New cards
85

What drugs are used in patient-controlled analgesia pumps?

Morphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone

New cards
86

Why are PCA pumps liked by patients?

Patient controlled and near-constant analgesic level

New cards
87

What kind of pain control do transdermal routes provide?

Continuous pain control

New cards
88

What can adjuvant therapies be used along with?

Nonopioid and opioid drugs

New cards
89

What are the different types of adjuvant analgesics?

Anticonvulsants, antidepressants, corticosteroids, antidysrhythmics, local aesthetics

New cards
90

What are withdrawal symptoms of benzos?

Tremors, agitation, nervousness, sweating, insomnia, anorexia, muscle cramps

New cards
91

What is nalbuphine used for?

Decreased opioid abuse

New cards
92

What are characteristics of migraine headaches?

Unilateral throbbing pain, nausea, vomiting, photophobia

New cards
93

What are characteristics of cluster headaches?

Unilateral non-throbbing pain around the eye, does not cause nausea

New cards
94

What drug is a opioid antagonist?

Naloxone

New cards
95

What is naloxone used for?

Antidote for opiate overdoses

New cards
96

Is a patient advised to drive while taking lorazepam?

No! Sedation is a side effect

New cards
97

What is the action of buspirone?

Binds to serotonin and dopamine receptors

New cards
98

Is buspirone effective right away?

No! Takes 1-2 weeks of continuous use

New cards
99

What is more common in males: migraine or cluster?

Cluster

New cards
100

What drug falls under selective serotonin receptor agonists?

Sumatriptain

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 109 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard90 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 40 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(15)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard96 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 50 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard93 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)