HOSA clinical nursing competition

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What system has greatly increased the number and types of health care settings?

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1

What system has greatly increased the number and types of health care settings?

Health care system

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2

What health care workers help individuals and aggregates (groups) to improve health of the entire community?

Community health nurses

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3

What is the main difference between home health care nursing and public health care nursing?

Direct care to patients

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4

What major health care involves teaching patients and families to care for themselves so as to promote independent functioning?

Home health care

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5

What is a major source of home health care funding?

Medicare

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6

For what do these 4 conditions have to be met for?

1. the physician has determined the need for home care

2. the patient needs intermitted skilled nursing care or physical or speech-language therapy or continued occupational therapy

3. the patient is homebound

4. the agency providing the care is Medicare certified

Medicare

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7

What are the high-technology interventions (the provisions of intravenous therapy and ventilator), hospice services, pediatric care, and mental health care for?

Specialty home care services

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8

What is the process of restoring an individual to the best possible health and functioning following a physical or mental impairment and the prevention of further disability?

Rehabilitation

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9

Caring for what type of patient requires the coordinated services of a large number of health care professionals to help patients stay healthy and prevent complications or injuries?

Disabled

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10

As an effective member of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation team, the __________ is a care planner, teacher, caregiver, counselor, coordinator, and advocate

Nurse

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11

________ ________ workers must consider the way a disabled individual functions within the family and the patient and family should be involved from the outset in determining the plan of care

Health care

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12

___________ in activities of daily living is the best indicator of who will need nursing home placement

Dependence

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13

What residential care exists in these 4 levels:

1. domiciliary care

2. sheltered housing

3. intermediate care

4. skilled care

Modern long-term

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14

Care delivered in _____________ residential facility is based on 3 principles:

1. promotion of independence

2. maintenance of function

3. maintenance of autonomy (freedom from external authority to make decisions about one's health and health care)

Long-term care

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15

What is the cornerstone of the healing process?

Nutrition

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16

To support and maintain life for fight disease, the body must be supplied with the proper __________

Nutrients

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17

What process involves enzymes helping break down food particles to their simplest form so that the nutrients can be absorbed by the body?

Digestive

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18

What body system regulates neural control and the secretion of hormones?

Gastrointestinal

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19

Parasympathetic nerves stimulate what?

Digestive activity

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20

What major organ is normally emptied in 1-4 hours, depending on the amount and kinds of food eaten?

Stomach

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21

The primary organ of absorption is the _______ _________

Small intestine

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22

Fluids, vitamins, and minerals are absorbed through the intestinal ___________

Mucosa

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23

The body makes use the energy received through the food that is eaten, and the _________ portion of __________ expenditure occurs during rest to carry out the mechanical activities needed to sustain life processes

Largest/energy

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24

Although ________ are the body's main source of food energy, ________ are the most concentrated source

Carbohydrates/fats

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25

Most of the energy needed to move, perform activities, and live is consumed in the form of _________, which are converted primarily to glucose for immediate use by the body's cells

Carbohydrates

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26

________ are a major source of energy for muscle tissue, even when glucose is available

Lipids

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27

_______ are made of smaller units called amino acids

Proteins

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28

_________ and _________ are micronutrients; they are needed in small amounts for good health

Vitamins/minerals

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29

________ is the largest component of the body and body tissues are essential to all life processes in the body

Water

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30

Maintaining a good diet can help middle-aged and older adults maintain a high level of function and reduce the risks of _______ disease

Chronic

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31

Because of the normal decline in metabolism and physical activity, _______ needs lessen with age

Energy

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32

________ are at risk for megaloblastic anemia if adequate _______ ______ is not added to the diet

Vegetarians/vitamin B12

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33

Anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating disorder are ______ disorders that often begin in adolescence

Eating

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34

______ disorders are thought to be caused by multiple biologic, psychologic, sociocultural, and spiritual factors

Eating

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35

For patients who cannot take ______ feedings, nutritional support may be provided through enteral tube feedings, or peripheral, or central catheters

Oral

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36

If a subcutaneous injection is to be given at a 90 degree angle, you should choose a needle that is ______ inches in length

1/2

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37

If a subcutaneous injection is to be given at a 45 degree angle, you should choose a needle that is ______ inches in length

5/8

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38

______ ______ is enough of a drug to produce the desired physiological response, but not enough to cause toxicity

Therapeutic response

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39

All ______ should be stored in a locked cabinet

Narcotics

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40

Narcotics should be ______ frequently, during the opening of narcotic drawers, and/or shift change

Counted

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41

Report discrepancies in narcotic counts ______

Immediately

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42

If you give only part of a premeasured dose of a controlled substance, a ______ nurse witnesses' disposal disposal of the unused portion

Second

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43

______ nurses sign their names on the required form

Both

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44

______ is the passage of medication molecules into the blood from the site of administration

Absorption

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45

After a medication is absorbed, it is ______ to tissues and organs and finally to the site of drug action

Distributed

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46

The rate and extent of distribution depends on ______, cell membrane ______, and protein binding. When their is poor perfusion, as in the case of heart failure, this ______ medication distribution

Circulation/permeability/alters

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47

After a medication reaches its site of action, it becomes ______ into a less active or inactive form

Metabolized

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48

Most biotransformation occurs in the _______, although the lungs, kidneys, blood, and intestines also play a role

Liver

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49

Patients (e.g. older adults and those with chronic disease) are at risk for ______ ______ if their organs that metabolize medications do not function correctly

Medication toxicity

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50

The final aspect of pharmacokinetics is ______, the process of medications exiting the body through the lungs, exocrine glands, bowel, kidneys, and liver

Excretion

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51

A medication's ______ ______ determines the organ of excretion.

For example, gaseous and volatile compounds, such as alcohol and nitrous oxide, exit through the ______

Chemical makeup/lungs

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52

In medications that exit through sweat glands, you provide ______ to reduce skin irritation

Hygiene

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53

You must know if a drug is excreted through the ______, because the administration of laxatives or enemas increases ______, accelerates excretion, and thus lessens the time for drug effects

Intestines/peristalsis

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54

When patients have reduced ______ function, they are at risk for medication toxicity

Renal

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55

It is important to know the exact ______ ______ for which a medication is prescribed so you can properly ______ patients about a medication's intended effect and to accurately evaluate the medication's desired effect

Therapeutic effect/teach

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56

Sometimes a single medication have many therapeutic effects.

For example, ______ relieves pain and reduces fever and tissue inflammation

Aspirin

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57

_______ ______ are predictable and often unavoidable secondary effects produced at a usual therapeutic drug dose

Side effects

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58

Some antihypertensive medications cause _______ in male patients

Impotence

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59

If the side effects are serious enough to outweigh the ______ of a medication's therapeutic action, the prescriber will likely ______ the medication

Benefits/discontinue

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60

Patients commonly ______ taking medications because of side effects such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, constipation, and diarrhea

Stop

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61

______ drug effects are unintended, undesirable, and often unpredictable

Adverse

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62

Unfortunately, although ADEs are sometimes immediately apparent, they often take _______ or ______ to develop

Weeks/months

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63

______ recognition and reporting of ADEs will prevent serious injury to patients

Prompt

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64

______ ______ develop after prolonged intake of a medication, when a medication accumulates in the blood because of impaired metabolism or excretion, or when too high a dose is given

Toxic effects

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65

Toxic levels of morphine, an opioid, cause severe ______ ______ and death

Respiratory depression

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66

Medications often cause unpredictable effects such as an ______ ______, in which a patient ______ or ______ to a medication or has a reaction different from normal

Idiosyncratic reaction/overreacts/underreacts

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67

Predicting which patients will have an idiosyncratic response is ______

Impossible

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68

Ativan, an antianxiety medication, which given to an older adult may cause ______ and ______

Agitation/delirium

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69

______ ______ also are unpredictable responses to a medication

Allergic reactions

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70

Exposure to an initial dose of a medication causes a patient to become sensitized ______

Immunologically

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71

The medication acts as an ______, which causes ______ to be produced

Antigen/antibodies

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72

With repeated ______, the patient develops an allergic response to the drug, its chemical preservatives, or a metabolite

Administration

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73

Among the different classes of medications, ______ cause a high incidence of allergic reactions

Antibiotics

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74

______ is fastest, directly into the blood stream

IV

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75

______ is second fastest, injected into muscle then absorbed into the bloodstream

IM

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76

______ is third fastest, injected into subcutaneous tissue, then absorbed slower than IM

SQ

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77

______ is slowest, swallowed by the patient, then goes through the stomach, then the first pass effect, then absorbed by the digestive tract

PO

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78

The highest serum concentration (______ concentration) of a medication usually occurs just before the body absorbs the ______ of the medication

Peak/last

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79

With ______ infusions, the peak concentration occurs quickly, but the serum level also begins to fall ______

IV/immediately

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80

The point at which the lowest amount of drug is in the serum is the _____ concentration

Trough

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81

A patient's trough level is drawn as a blood sample ______ ______ before administering the drug, and the peak level is drawn whenever the drug is expected to reach its peak ______

30 minutes/concentration

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82

What is the right medication, the right dose, the right patient, the right route, the right time, the right documentation?

The 6 rights of medication

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83

______ procedures classified by purpose are:

1. diagnostic

2. exploratory

3. curative

4. palliative

5. cosmetic

Surgical

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84

______ procedure involves the removal and study of tissue to make an accurate diagnosis

Diagnostic

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85

______ procedure includes a more extensive procedure than a biopsy

Exploratory

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86

______ procedure is made to remove diseased tissue or to correct defects

Curative

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87

______ procedure relieves symptoms or improves function without correcting the basic problem

Palliative

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88

______ procedure is performed to correct serious defects that affects appearance

Cosmetic

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89

______ that affect surgical outcomes are age, nutritional status, fluid and electrolyte balance, medical diagnoses, drugs, and habits such as use of tobacco and alcohol

Variables

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90

The ______ of the surgical experience are Preoperative, Intraoperative, and Postoperative

Phases

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91

______ measures to reduce patient anxiety and increase knowledge about the surgical experience may actually decrease complications

Nursing

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92

______ teaching should include surgical preparation; what to expect in the surgical suite and the PACU; what tubes, dressings, or equipment may be in place after surgery; and how patient participation can promote ______

Preoperative/surgery

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93

Before ______, the patient or legal guardian must sign a legal ______ form.

Surgery/consent

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94

Consent forms from the patient must be obtained ______ preoperative medications are given

Before

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95

After preoperative medications are given the patient should ______ in bed

Remain

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96

The ______ team consists of nurses who circulate, nurses who scrub, an RFNA, one or more surgeons, an anesthesiologist or a nurse anesthesiologist, and other technical personnel

Surgical

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97

______ is an ongoing development process that begins at conception and ends at death

Aging

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98

______ is the study of aging

Gerontology

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99

______ is the biomedical science of old age and the application of knowledge related to the biologic, biomedical, behavioral, and social aspects of aging to the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care of older people

Geriatrics

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100

______ nursing aims to increase healthy behaviors in the aged, minimize and compensate for health-related losses and impairments of aging, and facilitate the diagnosis, care, and treatment of disease in the aged

Gerontological

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