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central nervous system

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102 Terms

1

central nervous system

consists of the brain and spinal cord and coordinates all of the body's activities

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peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body

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3

dendrite

the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

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4

soma

cell body

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5

axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

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6

neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

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7

function of a neuron

process and transmit information

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8

hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

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9

chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

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10

dna

A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.

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11

genes

DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.

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12

natural selection

A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.

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13

mutations

Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides. The source of all genetic diversity.

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14

behavior genetics

the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

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15

twin studies

a common method of investigating whether nature or nurture affects behavior

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16

klinefelters

trisomy of sex chromosome, XXY, results from two or more X chromosome in males

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17

down syndrome

3rd copy of chromosome 21

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18

Turner Syndrome

A chromosomal disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO instead of XX, or part of one X chromosome is deleted.

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19

endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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20

pineal gland

secretes melatonin

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21

pituitary gland

The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.

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22

adrenal gland

A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress.

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23

hypothalamus

keeps your body stable and in homeostasus

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24

spinal reflex

A simple automatic action of the spinal cord not requiring involvement of the brain, such as the knee-jerk reflex

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25

somatic nervous system

Division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles.

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26

sympathetic nervous system

fight or flight

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27

autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.

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28

parasympathetic nervous system

a set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state

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29

Endorphins

"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.

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30

excititory neurotransmitters

excite a neuron; cause a response

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31

action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

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32

excess dopamine

schizophrenia

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33

lack of dopamine

Parkinson's disease

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34

inhibitory neurotransmitters

inhibit a neuron; decrease a response

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35

parapelgia

paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body

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36

quadripelgia

paralysis of all four limbs

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37

afferent neuron

nerve cell that sends messages to brain or spinal cord from other parts of the body; also called sensory neurons

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38

efferent neurons

neurons that take information from the brain to the rest of the body

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39

agonist

a molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's action

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40

antagonist

occupy a receptor site to block a neurotransmitter

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41

depolarization

The process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive; -55

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42

repolarization

Return of the cell to resting state, caused by reentry of potassium into the cell while sodium exits the cell; -70

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43

all or none law

principle that the action potential in a neuron does not vary in strength; the neuron either fires at full strength or it does not fire at all

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44

membrane potential

voltage across a membrane

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45

myelin sheath

covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses

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46

nodes of ranvier

a gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells.

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47

schwann cells

produce myelin in PNS

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48

stimulus threshold

the minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron

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49

resting potential

the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse

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50

synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

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51

reuptake

process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles

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52

dopamine

influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

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53

serotonin

regulates mood

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54

Norepinephrine

helps control alertness and arousal

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55

gaba

a major inhibitory neurotransmitter

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56

acetycholine

enables muscle action, learning, and memory

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57

glutamate

A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory

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58

hierarchical organization of the brain

hindbrain-->midbrain-->forebrain

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59

hindbrain

medulla, pons, cerebellum, reticular formation

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60

midbrain

A small part of the brain above the pons that integrates sensory information and relays it upward.

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61

Forebrain (cerebral cortex)

Collection of upper-level brain structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system.

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62

cerebral cortex

The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.

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63

left hemisphere

controls the right side of the body; analytical, language, math

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64

right hemisphere

controls the left side of the body; creative, intuitive, spacial

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65

occipital lobe

vision; wired backwards

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66

medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

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67

pons

A brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain

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68

Cerebellum

Balance and coordination

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69

reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

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70

basal ganglia

structures in the forebrain that help to control movement

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71

gray matter

Brain and spinal cord tissue that appears gray with the naked eye; consists mainly of neuronal cell bodies (nuclei) and lacks myelinated axons.

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72

corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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73

temporal lobe

An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex near the temples that is the primary receiving area for auditory information

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74

pariental lobe

processes information about touch; creates 3d spacial awarness

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75

frontal lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement

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76

long-term potentiation

an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

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77

Hippocampus

A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.

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78

the limbic system

neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.

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79

Thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

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80

Hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

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81

Amygdala

processes fear and threatening stimuli; linked to emotion.

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82

prefrontal cortex

involved in impulse control and long term planning; not fully developed until 25

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83

cortical areas

Thinking, memory and language are the last to develop. Mental abilities surge-Fiber pathways supporting language and agility.

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84

somatosensory cortex

registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

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85

motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

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86

brocas area

Controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.

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87

Wernicke's area

controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe

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88

roger sperry

scientist who won a Nobel Prize for work with split brain patients; theorized that the hemispheres could operate independently of each other.

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89

cortical localization

notion that different functions are located in different areas of the brain

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90

Michael Gazzaniga

Conducted the "HE-ART" experiments with split brain patients

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91

lateralization of function

the tendency for some neural functions or cognitive processes to be specialized to one side of the brain or the other. Sometimes called "hemispheric specialization" or "hemispheric lateralization".

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92

structural plasticity

The brain's ability to actually change its physical structure (as a result of learning).

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93

functional plasticity

The brain's ability to move functions from a damaged area of the brain to other undamaged areas.

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94

lesion

tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

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95

Epigenetics

is the study of how the environment and other factors can change the way that genes are expressed.

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96

blood-brain barrier

Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out

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97

neurogenesis

the strengthening and development of neural tissue

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98

neurogenesis rats

Group I involved rats both raised in isolation, and with no toys to stimulate their brain.

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99

Group II rats was raised in small groups, and was given toys to play with.

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100

Findings: rats in Group II had heavier forebrains - stimulation caused long term potentiation/neurogenesis, which made their brains weigh discernably more.

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