ARCL 228

studied byStudied by 4 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

forensic taphonomy

1 / 248

Tags and Description

249 Terms

1

forensic taphonomy

modifications made to the bone that are essentially natural

New cards
2
<p>effects of animal scavenging</p>

effects of animal scavenging

  1. scattering/disarticulation of remains

  2. pull limbs apart at torso, gnaw an epiphyses

  3. break bones in particular pattern by trampling or chewing

  • more than 80% of skeleton recovered = less than 6 months since dead

  • less than 20% of skeleton recovered = more than 6 months since death

  • rodents create parallel lines on bones

New cards
3
<p>carnivore activity on bones</p>

carnivore activity on bones

Chewing on bone

  • puncturing

  • pits (compressed cortical bone)

  • scoring (parallel lines)

  • furrows (sharp, deeper)

  • excessive activity leaving V-shaped marks

New cards
4

sequence of carnivore dismemberment

  1. soft tissue of head and neck

  2. ventral thorax opened, contents of chest eaten, followed by sternum/rib ends

  3. upper limbs

  4. lower limbs

  5. thorax removed, ribs broken

  6. long bones separated from each other

  7. all bones disarticulated, scattered, chewed

New cards
5
<p>weathering</p>

weathering

water hydrates bone, sun dries it out

New cards
6
<p>burial damage</p>

burial damage

bone takes on qualities of burial environment

  • soil colour permeates bone

  • root etching

  • erosion of cortical bone

  • damage during recovery

New cards
7

water transport phases

  1. body sinks, travels away from initial point of insertion

  • damage from body scraping, erosion of tissue

  • damage from currents

  1. body bloats, rises to surface

  • body parts begin to separate

  1. independent movement of individual body parts

  • round segments can travel long distances

  • ankles often detach

  • flat bones stay closer to point of insertion

New cards
8

Chronological age

birthdays

New cards
9

biological age

growth and development rate

  • differs from chronological at actual birth

New cards
10

socio-cultural age

sociological markers from progressing through social stages based on your roles and responsibilities

New cards
11

trajectory effect

dissociation of biological age and chronological age

  • nutritional defects

New cards
12

fetal bone growth

starts at 8 weeks, birth occurs at 40 weeks

New cards
13

juvenile bone growth

  1. in-utero to 5 years: very rapid (triples in size)

  2. 5 to puberty: gradual plateau

  3. 14-16: spikes again

  • individual and sex dependent

New cards
14

prenatal

conception to birth

  • embryo: 1-10 weeks

  • fetus: 10 weeks to birth

  • birth: 40 weeks, skeleton formed at 32 weeks

New cards
15

infancy

when baby is nursing

  • perinate: time of birth

  • neonate: first 4 weeks after birth

  • infant: birth to 1 year

New cards
16

childhood

weaning (2-5) to puberty

  • early childhood: 1-4 years

  • late childhood: 5-10 years

New cards
17

adolescence

puberty to end of growth

  • early: 11-14 years

  • late: 15-17 years

New cards
18

ageing using long bone length

lengths can estimate how long child has been in utero

  • varies between people because no everyone is the same

<p>lengths can estimate how long child has been in utero</p><ul><li><p>varies between people because no everyone is the same</p></li></ul>
New cards
19

standard error

accounts for differences in bone length between each person

<p>accounts for differences in bone length between each person</p>
New cards
20

ageing using the skull

  • Sphenoid and mastoid fontanelle: after birth

  • Posterior fontanelle: 6 months

  • Anterior fontanelle: 1-2 years

  • Metopic suture: 2-4 years

New cards
21

ageing using vertebral arches

2 years: neural arches fuse together 3-4 years: pedicals fuse to neural arches

<p>2 years: neural arches fuse together 3-4 years: pedicals fuse to neural arches</p>
New cards
22

ageing using sacrum

2-6 years: neural arches fuse 12-14 years: lateral element fuses 12-25+ years: sacral vertebrae fusees

New cards
23

ageing using scapula

18-20 years: acromion process fuses 16-17 years: coracoid process fuses 15-20 years: rim of glenoid fossa fuses

<p>18-20 years: acromion process fuses 16-17 years: coracoid process fuses 15-20 years: rim of glenoid fossa fuses</p>
New cards
24

ageing using humerus

14-21 years: hemeral head fuses (F=14-19, M=16-21) 11-18 years: distal epiphysis fuses (F=11-15, M=14-18) 13-18 years: medial epiphysis fuses (F=13-15, M=16-18)

<p>14-21 years: hemeral head fuses (F=14-19, M=16-21) 11-18 years: distal epiphysis fuses (F=11-15, M=14-18) 13-18 years: medial epiphysis fuses (F=13-15, M=16-18)</p>
New cards
25

ageing using radius

11-17 years: radial head fusing (F=11-13, M=14-17) 14-20 years: distal epiphysis fusing (F=14-17, M=16-20)

<p>11-17 years: radial head fusing (F=11-13, M=14-17) 14-20 years: distal epiphysis fusing (F=14-17, M=16-20)</p>
New cards
26

ageing using ulna

12-16 years: olcranon fuses (F=12-14, M=13-16) 15-20 years: ulnar head fuses (F=15-17, M=17-20)

<p>12-16 years: olcranon fuses (F=12-14, M=13-16) 15-20 years: ulnar head fuses (F=15-17, M=17-20)</p>
New cards
27

ageing using hand and wrist

knowt flashcard image
New cards
28

ageing using femur

12-19 years: femoral head fusing (F=12-16, M=14-19) 14-18 years: greater trochanter fusing (F=14-16, M=16-18) 16-17 years: lesser trochanter fusing 14-18 years: distal epiphysis (F=14-18, M=16-20)

<p>12-19 years: femoral head fusing (F=12-16, M=14-19) 14-18 years: greater trochanter fusing (F=14-16, M=16-18) 16-17 years: lesser trochanter fusing 14-18 years: distal epiphysis (F=14-18, M=16-20)</p>
New cards
29

ageing using tibia

13-19: tibial plateau fusing (F=13-17, M=15-19) 14-19: distal epiphysis fusing (F=14-16, M=15-18)

<p>13-19: tibial plateau fusing (F=13-17, M=15-19) 14-19: distal epiphysis fusing (F=14-16, M=15-18)</p>
New cards
30

ageing using patella

appears at 3-6 years

<p>appears at 3-6 years</p>
New cards
31

ageing using fibula

12-20 years: proximal epiphysis fusing (F=12-17, M=15-20) 12-18 years: distal epiphysis fusing (F=12-15, M=15-18)

<p>12-20 years: proximal epiphysis fusing (F=12-17, M=15-20) 12-18 years: distal epiphysis fusing (F=12-15, M=15-18)</p>
New cards
32

ageing using foot

knowt flashcard image
New cards
33

ageing using teeth

  • ex. M1 Tooth: 1/4 length grown = 4.9 years

  • ex. I1 Tooth: 1/4 length grown = 4.8 years

<ul><li><p>ex. M1 Tooth: 1/4 length grown = 4.9 years</p></li><li><p>ex. I1 Tooth: 1/4 length grown = 4.8 years</p></li></ul>
New cards
34

tooth eruption

adult or deciduous teeth as they are being exposed through gum line

<p>adult or deciduous teeth as they are being exposed through gum line</p>
New cards
35

adult age

  1. young adult: 20-35 years

  2. middle age: 35-50 years

  3. old adult: 50+ years

New cards
36

bones that fuse in adulthood

  1. clavicle: 16-30 years (manubrium end)

  2. sternum: 40 years (xiphoid process, sternal body)

  3. sacrum: 25 years (sacral element 1-2)

  4. os coxa: 27 years (pubic symphysis), 17-23 (iliac crest)

<ol><li><p>clavicle: 16-30 years (manubrium end)</p></li><li><p>sternum: 40 years (xiphoid process, sternal body)</p></li><li><p>sacrum: 25 years (sacral element 1-2)</p></li><li><p>os coxa: 27 years (pubic symphysis), 17-23 (iliac crest)</p></li></ol>
New cards
37

adult bones breaking down

  • pubic bone - pubic symphysis, auricular surface (gets more holey, coarser, striations, more stable joint)

  • ilium

  • ribs - surface bone, surface contour, rim contour

  • cranial sutures (fill with bone)

New cards
38

pubic symphysis degradation

knowt flashcard image
New cards
39

rib degradation

knowt flashcard image
New cards
40

primary sex characteristics

genitals

New cards
41

secondary sex characteristics

skeletal and phenotypic forms that develop during puberty

New cards
42

female secondary sex characteristics

  • mechanisms necessary for childbirth

  • juvenile growth rate faster

New cards
43

male secondary sex characteristics

  • taller on average

  • muscle attachments larger

New cards
44

estimating sex

more sexually monomorphic than other species

  • pelvis: correct 90-95% of the time

  • skull: correct 80-90% of the time

  • long bones: correct <80% of the time

New cards
45

sex estimate with nuchal area

m: rugged, may have hook f: smoother, rarely have hook

<p>m: rugged, may have hook f: smoother, rarely have hook</p>
New cards
46

sex estimate with mastoid process

m: large, projecting f: small, non-projecting

<p>m: large, projecting f: small, non-projecting</p>
New cards
47

sex estimate with brow ridges

m: large f: small to none

<p>m: large f: small to none</p>
New cards
48

sex estimate with supraorbital margin

m: rounded f: sharp

<p>m: rounded f: sharp</p>
New cards
49

sex estimate with mental eminence

m: broad or square f: pointed

<p>m: broad or square f: pointed</p>
New cards
50

discriminant function equation

M1: cranial length M2: cranial breadth M3: bizygomatic diameter M4: mastoid process length

<p>M1: cranial length M2: cranial breadth M3: bizygomatic diameter M4: mastoid process length</p>
New cards
51

sex estimation using pelvic inlet

M: heart-shaped F: circular/elliptical, parturition scarring

<p>M: heart-shaped F: circular/elliptical, parturition scarring</p>
New cards
52

sex estimation using subpubic angle/concavity

M: narrow or V-shaped F: wide or U-shaped

<p>M: narrow or V-shaped F: wide or U-shaped</p>
New cards
53

sex estimation using ilium

M: tall, denser F: broad, thinner

<p>M: tall, denser F: broad, thinner</p>
New cards
54

sex estimation using pubic bone

M: narrow, rectangular F: broad, square

<p>M: narrow, rectangular F: broad, square</p>
New cards
55

sex estimation using pre-auricular sulcus

M: absent/poorly developed F: present/well-developed

<p>M: absent/poorly developed F: present/well-developed</p>
New cards
56

sex estimation using greater sciatic notch

M: narrow F: wide

<p>M: narrow F: wide</p>
New cards
57

sex estimation using coxal bone

  • ventral arc: M=slight/absent, F=strong

  • subpubic concavity: M=convex, F=concave

  • ischiopubic ramus ridge: M=broad/flat, F= narrow/crest-like ridge

<ul><li><p>ventral arc: M=slight/absent, F=strong</p></li><li><p>subpubic concavity: M=convex, F=concave</p></li><li><p>ischiopubic ramus ridge: M=broad/flat, F= narrow/crest-like ridge</p></li></ul>
New cards
58

three main classifications of ethnicity (problematic)

black, white, asian

New cards
59

nose anthroposcopic traits

  1. root

  2. bridge: how far nose sticks out

  3. spine

  4. shape of lower boarder: edge of nostrils (sharp, flat, or no boarder)

  5. shape of nasal aperture (tall, oval, heart-shaped)

<ol><li><p>root</p></li><li><p>bridge: how far nose sticks out</p></li><li><p>spine</p></li><li><p>shape of lower boarder: edge of nostrils (sharp, flat, or no boarder)</p></li><li><p>shape of nasal aperture (tall, oval, heart-shaped)</p></li></ol>
New cards
60

face anthroposcopic traits

  • face width: narrow or wide

  • eye orbit: angular, rectangular, rounded

<ul><li><p>face width: narrow or wide</p></li><li><p>eye orbit: angular, rectangular, rounded</p></li></ul>
New cards
61

suture anthroposcopic traits

  • sutures: patterns are complex and unique

  • post-bregmatic depression (where coronal and sagittal suture meet): not always present

<ul><li><p>sutures: patterns are complex and unique</p></li><li><p>post-bregmatic depression (where coronal and sagittal suture meet): not always present</p></li></ul>
New cards
62

jaw and teeth anthroposcopic traits

  • jaw shape: parabolic, elliptical, hyperbolic

  • chin shape: small, large/pointed, blunt,

  • teeth: crowding, gaps, incisor shapes

<ul><li><p>jaw shape: parabolic, elliptical, hyperbolic</p></li><li><p>chin shape: small, large/pointed, blunt,</p></li><li><p>teeth: crowding, gaps, incisor shapes</p></li></ul>
New cards
63

Carolus Linneas

created the Homo sapiens classification - white, black, dark, red

New cards
64

Johann Blumenbach

first to use comparative anatomy

  • 5 categories: Mongolian, American, Caucasian, Malayan, Ethiopian

New cards
65

sharp force trauma

wounds left on the bone from bladed instruments

  • narrow focus, dynamic, slow-speed compressive

  • sometimes resembles blunt force trauma

New cards
66

SFT cleft

deep/wide v-shaped cut

<p>deep/wide v-shaped cut</p>
New cards
67

SFT wastage

removal of bone from inside of cleft

New cards
68

SFT punctures

penetrating wound

  • captures shape of object

<p>penetrating wound</p><ul><li><p>captures shape of object</p></li></ul>
New cards
69

SFT striations

lines etched into bone from passage of blade

  • parallel to cut mark

  • perpendicular = chopping motion

<p>lines etched into bone from passage of blade</p><ul><li><p>parallel to cut mark</p></li><li><p>perpendicular = chopping motion</p></li></ul>
New cards
70

SFT incisions

gradually tapered v-shapes

  • longer than they are wide

<p>gradually tapered v-shapes</p><ul><li><p>longer than they are wide</p></li></ul>
New cards
71

wound analysis

  1. Wound Description

  • placement on skeleton

  • type of wound

  • size

  1. Instrument Characteristics

    • Type

    • Blade

  2. Direction of Force

  3. Number of Traumatic Events

  4. Sequence of Events

New cards
72

Antemortem Injury

healed sharp force trauma

  • rounded edges

<p>healed sharp force trauma</p><ul><li><p>rounded edges</p></li></ul>
New cards
73

Blunt Force Trauma

elevated level of impact, not high velocity

  • characterized by radiating fracture lines

  • type of instrument influences wound seen

New cards
74

BFT instrument size

focused = smaller objects

diffused = wider objects

New cards
75

BFT shape of instrument

cross-sectional outline

longitudinal configuration

  • injury mimics shape of object

New cards
76

deformation

inbending and outbending at impact site

<p>inbending and outbending at impact site</p>
New cards
77

elastic bone fracture

incomplete - more resistant to forces, more collagen, most often inward bending

<p>incomplete - more resistant to forces, more collagen, most often inward bending</p>
New cards
78

brittle bone fracture

complete fracture - whole sections of bone may fail

<p>complete fracture - whole sections of bone may fail</p>
New cards
79

weak trabecular bone fracture

incomplete fracture - outer table fail, inner table might not

<p>incomplete fracture - outer table fail, inner table might not</p>
New cards
80

weak inner table

comminuted fracture - inner table fail, outer may not

<p>comminuted fracture - inner table fail, outer may not</p>
New cards
81

depressed skull fractures

break in cranial bone, depression towards brain

<p>break in cranial bone, depression towards brain</p>
New cards
82

spiderweb skull fractures

radiating lines on outbent surface

  • additional force used

  • stop at suture or previous radiating line

  • tend to have bone wedges in-between fractures

<p>radiating lines on outbent surface</p><ul><li><p>additional force used</p></li><li><p>stop at suture or previous radiating line</p></li><li><p>tend to have bone wedges in-between fractures</p></li></ul>
New cards
83

skull bone wedges

concentric fracture lines and bone wedges forced inward

<p>concentric fracture lines and bone wedges forced inward</p>
New cards
84

hinge skull fractures

incomplete fracture on one side of depression

  • outward bending not completely separating

<p>incomplete fracture on one side of depression</p><ul><li><p>outward bending not completely separating</p></li></ul>
New cards
85

face fractures

3 areas (denser to weaker facial sections - buttressing)

  1. alveolar ridge

  2. malar eminences

  3. nasofrontal processes

New cards
86

lefort fractures on the face

LeFort 1: between alveolar and nasofrontal

LeFort 2: between nasofrontal and malar

LeFort 3: below anterior temporal and midfrontal

  • most frequently occurs in high-speed car accidents or falls, or striking the face directly with a rigid object

<p>LeFort 1: between alveolar and nasofrontal</p><p>LeFort 2: between nasofrontal and malar</p><p>LeFort 3: below anterior temporal and midfrontal</p><ul><li><p>most frequently occurs in high-speed car accidents or falls, or striking the face directly with a rigid object</p></li></ul>
New cards
87

cranial vault fractures - 4 areas of buttressing

  1. Midfrontal

  2. Midoccipital

  3. Posterior temoral - mastoid process

  4. Anterior temporal - above sphenoid

<ol><li><p>Midfrontal</p></li><li><p>Midoccipital</p></li><li><p>Posterior temoral - mastoid process</p></li><li><p>Anterior temporal - above sphenoid</p></li></ol>
New cards
88

ring fractures

falling backwards on hard surface, jumping from large heights and landing on feet

  • skull base fracture

  • spine shoved into crania

<p>falling backwards on hard surface, jumping from large heights and landing on feet</p><ul><li><p>skull base fracture</p></li><li><p>spine shoved into crania</p></li></ul>
New cards
89

long bone BFT

  • complete fractures

  • bone wedges

  • parry fractures (when you block trauma with your arm)

<ul><li><p>complete fractures</p></li><li><p>bone wedges</p></li><li><p>parry fractures (when you block trauma with your arm)</p></li></ul>
New cards
90

wound analysis

  1. Wound description

  • Placement on skeleton, bones being impacted

  • Type of fractures

  1. Estimate size of instrument

  2. Estimate shape of instrument

  3. Estimate direction of blows

  4. Estimate force

  5. Estimate number of blows

  • Flaking on edge of fracture = multiple blows to same area

  1. Estimate sequence of trauma

  • First blow will have greater range of radiating fracture lines

  • Fracture line that extends the most without being impeded will be first line

  1. Miscellaneous estimations

  • Intrinsic factors of bones, combination of tools used, different shaped trauma indicating different weapon areas, health issues

New cards
91

BFT ribs

most common cause of rib fractures

  • direct pressure on ribs = break

<p>most common cause of rib fractures</p><ul><li><p>direct pressure on ribs = break</p></li></ul>
New cards
92

BFT vertebrae

most often caused by car accidents - also assault, hanging injuries, sport injuries

<p>most often caused by car accidents - also assault, hanging injuries, sport injuries</p>
New cards
93

BFT scapula

caused by significant BFT - 75% car accidents

<p>caused by significant BFT - 75% car accidents</p>
New cards
94

BFT pelvis

uncommon in instance of BFT (8-9%) - often car accidents/being hit by a car

<p>uncommon in instance of BFT (8-9%) - often car accidents/being hit by a car</p>
New cards
95

burning - stage 1

pugilistic posture

  • initial evaporation of moisture in body

  • heat induced bending of limbs at joints

<p>pugilistic posture</p><ul><li><p>initial evaporation of moisture in body</p></li><li><p>heat induced bending of limbs at joints</p></li></ul>
New cards
96

burning - stage 2

soft tissue modification

  • flesh chars/splits

  • hair burns off

  • expulsion of cooked internal organs

  • larger muscles take longer to burn off

New cards
97
<p>burning - stage 3</p>

burning - stage 3

bone modification

  • collagen chars first

  • bone reduced to mineral

  • denser bones take longer to modify

New cards
98

bone burning colour change

  • Low Temperature (200-700 C): yellow brown to darker yellow brown to black

  • High Temperature (+800 C): dark grey to lighter grey/blue to white (calcination)

<ul><li><p>Low Temperature (200-700 C): yellow brown to darker yellow brown to black</p></li><li><p>High Temperature (+800 C): dark grey to lighter grey/blue to white (calcination)</p></li></ul>
New cards
99

bone burning bone cracking

  • crescent shaped along diaphysis - transverse cracking on long bones

  • shape relates to speed bone is drying out

New cards
100

bone burning hydrated bone

longitudinal breaks

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 34 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12357 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(80)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard95 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard115 terms
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 80 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)