bio exam 2

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1

cnidarian characteristics

  1. marine

  2. diploblastic

  3. eumetazoa (true tissues)

  4. radial symmetry

  5. gastrovascular cavity

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corals

  1. polyps

  2. dinoflagellates

  3. secrete calcium carbonate external skeleton

  4. ecosystem engineers

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choanoflagellates

  1. protists

  2. single-celled or colonial

  3. share common ancestor with animals

  4. live in salt/freshwater

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phylum porifera

  1. multicellular

  2. asymmetric

  3. lack tissues

  4. marine

  5. larvae swim and adults sessile

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coral reproduction

  1. external fertilization

  2. synchronously release eggs and sperm

  3. adaptive value allows time to fuse

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mature body structure

body wall consists of 2 layers of cells separated by gelatinous region

  1. outer: epithelial cells

  2. middle: called mesophyll includes amoebocytes

  3. inner: includes choanocytes

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gastrovascular cavity

also called incomplete digestive system

  1. food enter and waste exits through mouth

  2. no anus

  3. acts as hydrostatic skeletonphylu

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phylum porifera reproduction

  1. same individual produces the egg and sperm

  2. sperm released in water

  3. larvae have cilia

  4. fertilization is internal

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phylum porifera development

  1. don’t produce gasatulation

  2. no germ layers

  3. parazoa because they don’t have true tissues

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animal cell life/reproduction

  1. miotic cell division has no growth

  2. diploid is dominant

  3. haploid gametes

  4. embryonic development: fertilization, cleavage, blastula, gastrula

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parazoa

have no true tissues

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cnidarian form

medusae and polyp

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tissues

  1. collection of specialized cells that are isolate from other tissues by membranous layers

  2. formed after gastrulation

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triploblasts

3 layers

  1. ecto: outer covering and nervous tissue

  2. endo: lining and organs of digestive tract

  3. meso: circulatory system, muscles, some organs

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sponge body plan

  1. body is sac-like

  2. perforated with pores

  3. water flow through into spongocoel

  4. many have osculum

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sponge nutrition

  1. filter feeders

  2. ingest

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animal blastula development

blastula: hollow ball of cell

zygote to a 8-cell to many cells

gastrulation: rearrangement of embryo; folds into blastocoel, formation of germ layers

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fate of blastopore

protostomes

  1. first hole is mouth

  2. cleavage is spiral and determinate

deuterostomes

  1. first hole is anus

  2. cleavage is radial and indeterminate

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characteristics of animals

  1. multicellular

  2. no cell walls

  3. heterotrophic

  4. ingest

  5. many have tissues

  6. extracellular matrix allows for cohesion and communication

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how many go through metamorphosis

80%

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coral bleaching

degree heating week (DHW)

bleaching occurs at >4 within 12 week window

death occurs at 8+ within 12 week window

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lophophores

function in suspension in adults

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neural net vs. central nervous system

neural net: neurons diffuse in hydra

central nervous system: clustered neurons in earthworm

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body symmetry

radial: can be cut and any direction and still get equal halves

bilateral: can only cut one direction. central nervous system

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tissue types

  1. parazoa

  2. metazoa

  3. eumetaoza

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cnitocyst vs. nematocyst

cnitocyst: specialized cell containing nematocyst

nematocyst: organelle that contains injectable thread that stings

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coral reefs

threatened due to bleaching

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eumetazoa

have more than 1 type of tissues

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why coelom

  1. cusions organs

  2. lets organs move independently

  3. acts as skeleton for soft bodied animals

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coelom types

  1. coelomate: completely lined with mesoderm

  2. acoelomate: no body cavity

  3. psuedocoelomate: only 1 layer of mesoderm

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segmentation

allows for specialization

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metazoa

tissues (all animals

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trochophore

larvae swim and may feed

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class cestoda (tapeworms)

  1. found in intestines

  2. don’t have digestive system because they live in one

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subphylum within phlym arthropoda

  1. subphylum hexopoda

  2. subphylum myriapoda

  3. subphylum chelicerata

  4. subphylum crustacea

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characteristic: hard skeleton

  1. protection

  2. prevents water loss

  3. attachment site for muscles

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c. elegans

model organism of embryonic development

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adult cestode anatomy

scolex

  1. attachment organs on head

  2. hooks and suckers

proglottids

  1. body segments with sex organs

  2. detach

  3. chunk will fly off

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ecological roles of nematoes

nutrient cycling

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characteristics of arthropoda

  1. hard skeleton

  2. segmented body

  3. paired appendages

  4. well developed sensory system

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characteristic: jointed appendages

very moveable with multiple joints per leg

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free living vs. parasitic

free living: find food from environment

parasitic: get food from host

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complete metamorphosis

larvae and adult live in different habitats

look different

  1. adult food source: nectar, species

  2. larvae food source: leaf tissue, milkweed

advantage: no competition, mobile

disadvantage: little parental protection

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characteristics of flatworms

  1. bilateral

  2. cephalization

  3. central nervous system

  4. sensory organs

  5. flat

  6. incomplete or none digestive system

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class celphalopoda (squid, octopus, nautilus)

  1. marine

  2. intelligent

  3. closed circulatory

  4. shell: none, internal, external

  5. 6 part: shell, foot, mantle

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free living nutrition

  1. pharynx: muscular tractable tube

  2. pharynx inverts in

  3. food enters and leaves the pharynx

  4. incomplete digestive system

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ecdyaozoa - superphyla

protostome

  1. triploblast

  2. bilateral

  3. cleavage is spiral and determinate

possess exoskeleton for support and it sheds during growth

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cephalopod reproduction

  1. sexes separate

  2. reproduce at few years of age

  3. no larval stage

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class trematoda (flukes)

ectoparasitic and endoparasitic

tropical areas

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some nematodes

soybean cyst (bad for farmers)

lymphatic filiariasis (elephantiasis)

trichinela spiralis (trichiosis)

dirofilaria immitis (heartworm)

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phylum nematoda

  1. complete digestive system

  2. move by thrashing

  3. exoskeleton they shed

  4. pseudocoelom: 1 layer

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characteristic: segmented body

  1. division of labor

  2. segments fuse over time

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phylum arthropoda

  1. complete digestive system

  2. open circulatory system

  3. true coelomate

  4. trachea or book lungs

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characteristic: well developed sensory systems

  1. multiple complex eyes

  2. keens sense of smell

  3. antennae assist in smell and touch

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subphylum chelicerata

  1. puncture don’t chew

  2. claw like appendages

  3. 2 body regions: abdomen and cephalothorax

  4. most terrestrial some marine

  5. 4 pairs of legs

  6. no antennae

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subphylum myriapoda

2 classes

  1. class diplopoda (millipedes)

    1. 2 pairs of legs per segment

    2. herbivores and detritivores

    3. venom for defense

  2. class chilipoda (beetles)

    1. 1 pair of legs per segment

    2. carnivores

    3. venom capture prey and defense

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subphylum crustacea

  1. marine and freshwater

  2. lobsters, crabs, shrimps, barnacles, ispods

  3. 2 body regions: abdomen and cepholothorax

  4. 2 pairs of antennae

  5. branched appendages

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subphylum hexapoda

  1. terrestrial and freshwater

  2. 2 body regions: head, thorax, abdomen

  3. 3 pairs of legs

  4. 1 pair antennae

  5. 3 adaptations

    1. flight

    2. specialized mouthparts

    3. metamorphosis: incomplete and complete

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incomplete metamorphosis

larvae and adult live in same habitat

look similar

  1. adult food source: leaf tissue and milkweed

  2. larvae food source: leaf tissue and milkweed

advantage: parental protection

disadvantage: competition

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classes of phylum platyhelminthes

free living or parasitic

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classes of free living

class turbellaria (planarians)

  1. terrestrial, freshwater, mostly marine

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classes of parasitic

  1. class monogeneaclass

  2. trematoda (flukes)

  3. class cestoda (tapeworms)

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class gastropoda (snails, slugs)

  1. most diverse within phylum mollusca

  2. marine, freshwater, terrestrial

  3. most are herbivores

  4. 6 part body plan: foot, mantle, shell, visceral mass, gills, radula

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glass bivalvia (clams, mussles, scallops)

  1. marine and freshwater

  2. 2 shells

  3. filter feeders

  4. separate sexes with internal fertilization

  5. 6 part body plan: foot, mantle, shell, visceral mass, gills

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classes of phylum mollusca

class gastropoda (snails, slugs)

class bivalvia (clams, mussels, scallops)

class celphalopoda (squid, octopus, nautilus)

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6 part body plan

foot, mantle, shell, visceral mass, gill, radula

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open vs. closed circulatory system

open: low energy

closed: high energy (humans have)

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phylum mollusca

  1. 2nd largest

  2. most marine some freshwater

  3. comple digestive system

  4. generally separate sexes

  5. both open and closed circulatory systems

  6. 6 part body plan

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earthworm reproduction

  1. reproductive structure called clitellum

  2. sperm and eggs released in mucus cocoon

  3. fertilization and embryo development occur in cocoon

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class polychaeta (mostly marine worms)

  1. marine

  2. parapodia

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class clitellata subclass hirudinea

  1. some free living

  2. some ectoparasitic

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benefits of parasites

prevents overpopulation

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phylum platyhelminthes (flatworms)

  1. acoelomate

  2. no lophophor or trochophore

  3. live marine, freshwater, terrestrial

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odonata (dragonflies, damselfies)

  1. incomplete metamorphosis

  2. predators

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orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)

  1. incomplete metamorphosis

  2. herbivore

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hemiptera (true bugs)

  1. incomplete metamorphosis

  2. blood

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hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps)

  1. complete metamorphosis

  2. many queen species

  3. herbivores and predators

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diptera (flies, midges, gnats)

  1. complete metamorphosis

  2. some predators some eat nectar

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lepidoptera (butterflies, moths)

  1. complete metamorphosis

  2. herbivores

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coleoptera (beetles)

  1. complete metamorphosis

  2. predators and scavengers

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subphylum hexapoda diverstiy

  1. coleoptera (beetles)

  2. lepidoptera (butterflies, moths, skippers)

  3. diptera (flies, midges, gnats)

  4. hymenoptera (ants bees, wasps)

  5. hemiptera (true bugs)

  6. orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)

  7. odonata (dragonflies, damselfies)

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lophotrochozoans

  1. triploblastic

  2. bilaterally symmetric

  3. cleavage: spiral and determinate

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groups of phylum annelida

  1. class polychaeta (mostly marine worms)

  2. class clitellata

    1. subclass oligochaeta (earthworms)

    2. subclass hirudinea (leeches)

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phylum annelida (segmented worms)

marine, freshwater, damp terrestrial

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2 important adaptations

  1. true coelom

  2. segmentation

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deuterostomes

  1. triplosblastic

  2. first hole anus

  3. indeterminate cleavage

  4. true coelomate

  5. cephalization

  6. bilaterally symmetrical

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anthropoids (great apes)

  1. human ancestor

  2. 99% DNA similarity

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primate characteristics

  1. hands and feet for gripping

  2. flattened nails

  3. large brain for body size

  4. color vision

  5. complex social behavior

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primates

  1. prosimians

  2. antrhopoids

    1. new world monkeys

    2. old world monkeys

    3. great apes

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eutherians

  1. full embryonic development in uterus

  2. joined to mother by placenta

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marsupials

  1. embryo born underdeveloped

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monotremes

  1. lay eggs

  2. no nipples but milk still produced

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major mammalian groups

  1. no placenta

    1. monotremes (egg laying)

  2. placenta

    1. marsupials (pouched)

    2. eutherians (placenta)

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disadvantages of internal incubation

risky for mother

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advantages of internal incubation

  1. offspring develop at a more consistent temp

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mammal characteristics

  1. mammary gland

  2. internal incubation of young

  3. hair

  4. diaphragm

  5. specialized lungs

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endothermy

ability to regulate temperature “warm blooded”

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adaptations for flightr

  1. reduced organ systems

  2. feathers

  3. kneel on sternum

  4. hollow bones

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non bird reptiles

  1. ectothermic (cold blooded)

  2. scaly skin to reduce water loss

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reptiles

  1. 4 groups: snakes and lizards, turtles, alligators and crocodiles, birds

  2. extinct group: dinosaurs

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